Allium ascalonicum L.- Shallot onion.

Taxonomic position.

Family Alliaceae J.Agardh, genus Allium L.


Porrum ascalonicum Reichb., Allium cepa var. ascalonicum L. Backer

Morphology and biology.

2n=16. Variety of Common onion. Perennial. Small bulbs and leaves differ according to variety; intense branching, low essential oil content. Fibrous root system. Medium-sized, tubular, subulated leaves and small bulbs form the first year. First year leaves 25-45 cm in length, delicate, light-green in colour, radical. Second year leaves appear on peduncle. and stem. Plant forms up to 30 bulbs, with average total weight of 500 g. Bulbs compact, with good storage potential; frost-resistant. Bulb ovate, 0.5-2 cm in diameter, 1.5 cm in length, up to 100 g in weight, Dry glumes red-brown or yellow colour, pulpy scales not thick, light-lilac or white . Thin peduncles (up to 20 flowerstalks) 40-80 cm in length are formed in second year. Plant inflorescence is spherical multiflorous umbel with small light-blueish-pink or lilac colored flowers (sometimes with light reddish veins). Small bulbits form from flowers (seeds rarely form); therefore, propagules are mainly vegetative.Common varieties: Belozerets 94, Bonilla, Izumrud, Kaskad, Mezhsezon.e, Sibirskij zheltyj, SIR-7, Sofokl, Sprint, Kuzhevka khar.kovskaja, Atlass F1, Zvezdochka, Kajnarskij, Kunak, Karabalykskij.


Eastern Mediterranean origin. Cultivated mainly in southern and temperate areas of the former USSR.


Shallot onion is more vulnerable and less frost-resistant than Common onion. Bulbs withstand temperature of minus 5 degrees.Photoperiod sensitive; plant needs long day to flower. Requires humid, fertile soil. Vegetative period is 85-110 days in southern regions,115-130 days in northern regions. Bulb harvested 30 days after leaves appear.

Utilization and economic value.

Good nutritive value. Bulb contains sugars (more than other onions), mineral salts, vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, carotin. Used for food; can be served fresh, cooked, baked, fried, salted, and pickled. Used in medicine for eyes and stomach diseases. Leaves used as potherb. Average productivity of bulbs is 20 tons per hectare.

Reference citations:

Agafonov A.F. Elaboration of grades agrotechnics by Shallot onion growing and its distillation potherb in open and close ground. Moscow. 1984 (in Russian).
Bekseev Sh. Vegetable cultures of the world. The encyclopedia of truck farming. St.Petersburg. 1998 (in Russian).
Vorobiova A.A. Common onion. Moscow.1989 (in Russian).
Vehov V.N., Gubanov I.A., Lebedeva G.F. Cultural plants of the USSR. Moscow, 1978 (in Russian).
Kazakova A.A. Onion //Cultural flora of the USSR. Ed. by D.D.Brezhnev. Leningrad.
Onion; garlic. Comp. T.E. Lushchits. Minsk. 2001 (in Russian).
Method instructions by technology of Shallot onion cultivation for planting material. Comp. I.I. Ershov. Moscow. 1983 (in Russian).
Vegetable-growing of open ground. Ed. V.F. Belik. Moscow. 1984 (in Russian).

© N.V. Terekhina


Web design —
Kelnik studios