Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang. - Garden carrot


Family Apiaceae Lindl., genus Daucus L.
Subspecies western (European) carrot - subsp. occidentalis Rubasch. Sort-types Nantskaja, Shantane, Gerands, Valeria, Karotel. - variety of carotin carrot (var. aurantius Alef.), yellow carrot - var. sulfureus Alef. (Lobberihskaja), white - var. albus Alef. (Belaja Zelenogolovaja). Subspecies eastern (Asian) carrot - subsp. orientalis Rubasch. - 5 varieties: yellow (var. scharrovii Mazk.), violet (var. boissierii Schweinf.), black (var. vavilovii Mazk., root crops black-violet or violet), pink (var. rosseus Mazk.), orange (var. zhukovskii Setch.).


Daucus sativus (Hoffm.) Roehl.

Morphology and biology.

Biennial plant. In the first year of life it forms rosette of leaves and juicy edible root, in second year it is flowering and gives seeds. Root is fleshy-thick, fusiform, conical, cylindrical, round (with all passages between them), color is often orange with different intensity, rare yellow and white, hybrids form may be redish-violet; lateral roots are not very many usually. Weight of root 100- 300 g, rarely 500-1000 g; length 15-20 cm; diameter 3.5-4.5 (up to 10) cm. Leaves of the first year of plant.s life in contour are almost triangular, twice or fourfold pinnatisected, tender, thin, with long petioles, more or less pubescence. Colour of the leaves is green or light-green, sometimes with violet tint. Leaves disposition is rosette in vegetative period, and spiral in reproductive period. Form of rosette of leaves can be erect, semi-spreading, spreading, press; high from 25 to 50 cm. Number of the leaves in rosette is 7-15, rare more. Stem more often weakly costate, branched, pubescent, rare naked. Stem of the second year of life is fistular, costate, naked or pubescent, weak or strong-branched. Stem leaves with short channeled petioles widening to base. Inflorescence is umbel (diameter 4-10 cm) with big number of umbellules (10-50 up to 100); rays are different length; involucres and involucels are narrow and long. Petals more often white sometimes rosy, rare violet. Extreme flowers with more large petals, often asexual. Not infrequently dark-red flower is in the center of umbel. Fruit is two-seed (cremocarpouses) oval form, with acanthies. Weight of 1000 seeds 1-2.4 g.
Cultural carrot of Asia origin have roots with often yellow or violet to black and redish colour, with big number of lateral roots; without carotin usually; leaves with thick, rough, dark- or grey-green with weak cuted laminas.
Sorts are Vitaminnaja 6, Nantskaja 4, Shantene, Losinoostrovskaja 13, NIIOH-336.

Distribution and origin.

Cultivated on all continents of the globe. In the boundaries of the former USSR it is cultivated everywhere - from northern boundaries of agricultural to extreme south. Square of plantation 100-120 thousand hectares. In Russia sowings of carrot considerable spread in north-west zone, Western Siberia, central zone, Eastern Siberia and also on the Ural. Cultural carrot of Asia origin is cultivated in republics of Central Asia, on the south of Kazakhstan, in Transcaucasia. The biggest variety of forms of carrot is in South-West Asia countries. There are several centers of origin, but the major center is Afghanistan. The carrot was well known to the ancients, it was used firstly as medicinal plant only, and then as a vegetable. It appeared in Europe in the 12-14th century. Reliable data about carrot cultivation in Russia refer to 16 century; in Middle Asia and Transcaucasia species is cultivated from 10 century.


Well growths on the fertile, friable sub-sand, sand and loamy soils with neutral or weak-acid reaction (pH 5.5-7.0). Frigostable plant. The germination of the seeds begins by t° soil +4,5-5°C. Shoots appear in 2 weeks by +16-18°C. Optimal temperature of growth +20-25°C . Sprouts bear slight frosts to -4°. The smallest sum of active t° (above 10°C) necessary for accumulation of root crops 1500°C. Plant of long light day, but many sorts can grow in the short day conditions of southern regions and in the long polar day conditions of Extreme North. Considerably siccostabile plant (has the least necessity in water among edible roots, but requires higher moisture-providing in the first phases of growth). High and stable harvests gives by even moist of the soil in all period of vegetation. Level of subsoil water must not be nearer 60-80 cm from soil surface. Vegetation period 110-140 days.

Economic value.

It is one of the basic vegetable cultures. Edible roots contain vitamins C, B1, B2, B6, D, E, K, P, carotin (36 mg on 100 g of the damp substance), pantothenic acid, sugars (4.5-7.3%), mineral salts, proteins, fat and essential oils. In food for prepare of soups, bouillons, borsches, Russian salads, garnishes, sauces, cutlets, pies, stuffed cabbage-rolls; use in raw form (carrot juice), for sour with cabbage, pickle, jam, in dried form; for vegetable tinned-foods. Widely use by diverse diseases. In folk medicine: raise the resistance of organism to contagious diseases; improve the work of the diverse organs. Use in the perfumery industry. Rich fodder for feeding agricultural animals (including birds and furry animals), especially in the winter period, when fodders riches with vitamins are absent. The leafy tops use as silage (rich by proteins and mineral salts); carrot flour use also. Crop capacity fluctuates depending on natural conditions of regions and agrotechnic. Average edible root productivity is 30-50 ton per hectare, leafy tops 4-7 ton per hectare.

Reference citations:

Bekseev Sh.G. & Alekseeva D.I. Kitchen-garden. Lenizdat, 1987. 254 p.
Korenev G.V., Podgornyi P.I., Shcherbak S.N. Plant Growing with Basics of Selection and Seed Growing. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1990. 574 p.
Krasochkin V.T. (ed.) Cultural flora of USSR. Vol. 19. Leningrad: Kolos, 1971. 435 p.
Kravchuk S.S. Particulares cultivation of the carrot and beet in Western Siberia // Bulletin Siberia Botanical Garden. Issue 4. Tomsk, 1954. P. 55-60.
Litvinova M.K. Carrot - (Daucus carota L.) (biological particulares, selection and seedculture, agrotehnics of cultivation). Penza: MANAB, 2001. 144 p.
Sazonova L.V. Geographical changeable sort populations of the carrot (Daucus carota L.) // Bul. VIR. Issue 91. Leningrad, 1979. P. 56-60.
Vehov V.N., Gubanov I.A., Lebedeva G.F. Cultural plants of the USSR. Moscow: Mysl', 1978. 336 p.
Zangas F.T. Carrot of Middle Asia // Collection of the works post-graduate students and young research workers / ed. V.F. Dorofeev. Issue 16. Leningrad: VIR, 1970. P. 392-398.

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