Fragaria ananassa Duch. - Garden strawberry
Taxonomy.Family Rosaceae Juss., genus Fragaria L.
Synonyms.Fragaria x magna Thuill., F. grandiflora Ehrh.
Morphology and biology.2n=56. Perennial (evergreen in southern regions) dwarfish (height 10-20 (45) cm) gramineous berry plant with underground rhizome bearing leaves, shoots (runners) and stems. Main part of roots situated on the depth 10-30 cm. Stems erect, often lodging to the mature of fruits, covered by squarrose hairs; radical leaves on the long, 10-30 cm length, densely pubescent petioles; leaves tripartite; leaflets coriaceous, wide-obovate, 4-15 cm length, roundish on the top, obtuse-dental; upper leaf surface dark-green, weak-pubescence; lower leaf surface light-green, densely pubescent. There are 25-75 leaves in a bush. Inflorescence corymbose-formed, multi-flowers, squarrose pubescent; flowers 1-4.5 cm diameter, monecious (there are dioecious sorts); white petals from wide-ovoid to round shape. Fruit - false berry - is an enlarged, softened receptacle having small achenes on the surface. Fruits are large, 2-3 (5) cm diameter, red, white-pink or dark-cherry-coloured, different and often irregular form, weight 15-35 (up to 40)g. Polymorphic plant (different forms and sizes of plants, leaves, stems, inflorescens, flowers, berries are typical).
Distribution and origin.F. x ananassa - the basic species given majority cultivated in the world sorts of strawberry - in the wild condition is unknown. It originated from hybridization Fragaria chiloensis Duch. x F. virginiana Duch. It is possible that the F. vesca (by data of fenolic structure of berries of species genera Fragaria) took part in the forming of F. x ananassa. After delivery of Fragaria chiloensis in France in 1712 and its hybridization with F. virginiana new sorts were appeared (Downton, Elton, Keen.s Seedling, Wilson and others), and in the beginning of 18 century they started disseminated in neighbor countries and then all over the Europe; the first large plantations appeared in the middle of 19 century.
Species area is very wide: stretches out from 50-55° of northern latitude till southern border of tundra. In boundaries of the former USSR species cultivated on square more than 31 thousand hectares, in Russia - from Karelia, Archangel.sk region, south of Republic Komi on the north, to Northern Caucasus on the south, in the Middle Povolzhje, on the south of Western and Eastern Siberia, in Khabarovsk and Primorsk Territories. The major plantations are situated in the central regions of European part of Russia, in the Northern Caucasus, in Ukraine.
Ecology.The least winter-hardy berry plant. Better grows on the places where enough snow accumulated in a winter time. Often destroyed by frost during snowless winters. Temperature lower -10 -15° C without snow cover lead to withering away of leaves; under -12 -17° C destruction of weak-root plants occurs. Points of growth die-off under t° -17 -20° C, but plants perish completely with temperature lower -20° C without snow. Flowering in May-June (often appearing of the first flowers in time with slight frosts leads to the loss of the most valuable part of harvest), bear fruit in July. Prefers dewy fertile soils with subsoil waters not nearer than 1 m from superficiality. Bears fruits on the second year after planting and gives high harvest during 4 years.
Economic value.Berries are valuable product of the dietetic nutrition of man: 100 g fresh berries contain 45 calories, 85-90% water, 5.4-9.2% sugars including 3.6-5.5% glucose, 0.5-2.1% sucrose, and 0.2-1.5% fructose. Acidity of the berries change from 0.5 to 1.4%. Berries valuable as source of vitamins C (50-120 mg/100 g fresh berries), B1, B2, PP, carotine. Berries improve work of the heart. Valuable juice, jam, jelly, compote, preserve etc. Berries of some sorts well endure freezing. Leaves and berries used as different diseases medicine. Sorts Volgodonskaja, Zarja, Vistavochnaja, Talisman are cultivated in southern regions of Europe part of Russia. Sorts Festival.naja, Zenga Zengana, Krasaviza Zagor.ja, Rann.aja Maherauha are cultivated in central region. Sorts Zarja, Zolushka, Nadezhda, Shchedraja are cultivated in North-West region. Productivity 6-7 (up to 21 in Northern Caucasus) ton per hectare.
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