Malus domestica Borkh. - Apple tree domestic, a. cultural

Taxonomic position.

Family Rosaceae Juss., genus Malus Hill.


Malus sylvestris Mill. subsp. mitis (Wallr.) Mansf., Pyrus malus L. var. mitis Wallr.

Biology and morphology.

Tree from 3-6 to 10-14 m tall. Diameter of the trunk reaches 90 cm. Crown wide branching, sometimes spherical or ovoid. Shoots remain pubescent for a long time. Buds are ovoid-conical. Leaves are 5-10 cm long, ovoid, with pointed peak and rounded or slightly heart-shaped base, crenate-serrate, pubescent. Leafstalk is no more than 1/3 of the blade length. Corolla has 1-2 or 4-5 cm diameter, white or pinkish. Fruits differ in shape, size (usually more than 3 cm diameter), color and texture of peel, time of maturity and storage quality. Fruits have sour, sour-sweet or sweet taste. Average mass of the fruit is 150-160 g, but sometimes reaches 600 g (Antonovka Polutorafuntovaja) and even 900 g (Aport Alexandr). Flowers in April-June, bears fruit in August-October (December). Chromosome number: 2n=34, 51, 68.


Malus domestica grows in all countries with temperate, warm climates. In the countries of the former USSR, the northern border of distribution extends through Karelia between 60 and 65 degrees of northern latitude, through the islands Mantinsaari and Valaam in Ladoga Lake, through Nikolsk (Vologda province), Kotlas, Perm, further across Ural (Ekaterinburg, Chelabinsk), Omsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnojarsk, Irkutsk, Gorno-Altaisk, southern Amur province, and south of Habarovski krai, on Sahalin (Aleksandrovsk). It originates from different species and forms of the wild apple tree. East Asia (Far East of Russia, Japan and China) and Caucasus are the centers of the origin and varieties of the apple tree.


Apple trees grow and bear good fruits on loamy and sandy loam soils, as well as on sandy soils with the addition of organic fertilizations. Depression of growth and development is observed on saline, swampy and peaty soils. Life duration is 30-100 (on average 60-70) years. Area of significant cultivation of large-fruited varieties, as a rule, is located in the south. Summer types are grown in areas having approximately -2000 growing degree days (GDD), autumn types in areas having 2200 GDD, and winter types in areas having 2400 GDD.

Utilization and Economic Value.

Apple tree is the main fruit tree in the countries of the former USSR. There are about 10 thousand varieties, and in the former USSR, there are more than 300 varieties (70-80 varieties are the most widespread). Kitaika Zolotaja Rannaja, Papirovka, Naliv Beli, Korichnoje Polosatoje, Osenneje Polosatoje, Aport, Antonovka, and Babushkino are the most widespread varieties. Plantations cover more than 2.25 million hectares. Fruits are an important dietetic food, as they contain numerous valuable vitamins, 12-13% sugar, apple acid (3.7-4.1%), lemon acid (0.09-0.13%), pectin (0.43-1.2%), and tannins (0.025-0.1%). Fruits are utilized in fresh and dry states, processed into juice, compote, jam, puree, pastila, jelly and wine. Productivity ranges from 10 to 140 tons per hectare.

Reference citations:

Fiodorov A.A., Poletiko O.M. 1954. Apple-tree - Malus Mill. In: Sokolov S.J., ed. Trees and shrubs of USSR. V. 3. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 871 p.
Il'ina I.V. 1982. Appletree in Karelia. Petrozavodsk: Karelia. 54 p.
Langenfeld T.V. 1991. Apple-tree. Morphology, evolution, phylogeny, geography, taxonomy. Riga: Zinatne. 234 p.
Langenfeld T.V. 1991. Apple-tree. Morphology, evolution, phylogeny, geography, taxonomy. Riga: Zinatne. 234 p.
Lihonos F.D. 1995. Apple-tree. Moscow-Leningrad: State publishing of the agricultural literature. 167 p.
Lihonos F.D., Tuz A.S., Lobachev A.Ya. 1983. Culture flora of USSR. In: Vitkovskiy V.L., Korovina O.N., ed. Seedlings (apple-tree, pear, quince). V. 14. Moscow: Kolos. 320 p.
Majorova V.I. 1990. Appletree garden. Leningrad: Lenizdat. 144 p.
Vekhov V.N., Gubanov I.A., Lebedeva G.F. 1978. Cultural plants of the USSR. Moscow: Mysl.. 336 p.
Vitkovsky V.L. 2003. Fruit Plants of the World. St. Petersburg-Moscow-Krasnodar: Lan'. 592 p.

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