Ditribution area of Apple tree domestic (Malus domestica Borkh.)

Object description Download GIS-layers


N.V. Terekhina
N.M. Kalibernova

Date of creation:




Accuracy of map:

The minimal territorial unit was created using regional (oblast) arable territories, which were selected according to the arable map and generalized to the scale of 1:20,000,000.


"Alber.s Equal Area Conic for Russia", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Map is a vector file consisting of polygons and points. Points represent recorded locations of the species; polygons represent area of possible distribution of the species.

Accuracy of classifier:

Polygons are based on literature sources, political boundaries and ecological descriptions. Point data were obtained from literature sources and herbarium specimens.

Method of map production:

Historical agricultural statistics were reviewed at the regional level. The former Soviet Union has 16 regions. The boundaries from the 1:4000000 map of arable lands were used to further refine crop distribution (Koroljeva et al., 2003). The following sources were also used to determine the distribution area of this species: Fiodorov & Poletiko (1954), Lihonos (1955), Tulupnikov (1960), Lihonos & Tuz (1983), Langenfeld (1991), and Vitkovsky (2003). The distribution area in the European part of the former USSR covers almost the entire arable territory; species distribution is limited to 60-65 degrees of northern latitude. In Siberia, the northern border of the area moves in a southward direction; in the Far East, the area covers part of the Amur region, the southern part of Khabarovsky kray, and Sakhalin island. The border of the industrial cultivation of the apple tree was determined according to literature data and was adjusted according to the line of sum of active temperature (higher 10°C), exceeding 2200°C. Places that are located far from the main distribution area are marked by points.

Reference citations:

Fiodorov A.A., Poletiko O.M. 1954. Apple tree - Malus Mill. In: Sokolov S.J., ed. Trees and shrubs of USSR. V. 3. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 871 p.
Koroljeva I.E., Vilchevskaya E.V., Ruhovich D.I. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva N.M. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Langenfeld T.V. 1991. Apple-tree. Morphology, evolution, phylogeny, geography, taxonomy. Riga: Zinatne. 234 p.
Lihonos F.D. 1955. Apple-tree. Moscow-Leningrad: State publishing of the agricultural literature. 167 p.
Lihonos F.D., Tuz A.S., Lobachev A.Ya. 1983. Culture flora of USSR. In: Vitkovskiy V.L., Korovina O.N., eds. Seedlings (apple-tree, pear, quince). V. 14. Moscow: Kolos. 320 p.
Tulupnikov A.I., ed. 1960. Atlas agriculture of the USSR. Moscow: General Administration of Geodesy and Cartography. 309 p.
Vitkovsky V.L. 2003. Fruit Plants of the World. St. Petersburg-Moscow-Krasnodar: Lan'. 592 p.

Right and copyright:

Copyright on this map and its description belongs to its authors.
© N.V. Terekhina, N.M. Kalibernova
Photo N.V. Terekhina

Web design —
Kelnik studios