Solanum melongena L. - Garden Eggplant.

Taxonomic position.

Family Solanaceae Juss., genus Solanum L.

Morphology and biology.

2n=24. Perennial grassy plant, cultivated as annual one. Branching bushes 0,5-1,5 m height. The taproot system is well developed. Stalk is pubescence, sometimes with a violet shade. The stalk of old plants may be lignificated. Leaves are large (from 7 up to 35 cm length) alternate, simple, ovate, sometimes bladed, pubescence, gray-green colour. Leafstalks and main viens are light brown. Flowers are single or collected by 2-5 in cluster, corola consists from 5 petals often violet colouring. Stamens 5. Yellow anthers are long, forming a tube around of pestle. Heavy pollen transferred by a wind no more than to 1 m. Self-pollination is possible. Fruit - multilocular berry, up to 40 cm length; orbicular, pear-shaped or cylindrical form, with plain shining surface of yellow, green, violet, black or white color. Weight of a fruit in technical ripeness 0.4-1 kg. Fine seeds have light brown colouring, weight of 1000 seeds about 4 g.


Assume, that the native land of an eggplant is India, where it can be met as a wild plant. The secondary centre is the territory of China and southeast Asia countries. In Russia it appeared in 17 century. Species is cultivated on the territory of the former USSR in Central Asia, Transcaucasia, on Northern Caucasus, in the south of Ukraine, in the Nizhnjaja Volga region, Moldova.


Eggplant is a thermophilic, photophilous plant, requiring to humidifying and fertility of soil. Prefers light loamy soil. Plant of short day. Optimum temperature for growth 25-30 degrees Celsius. Some grades may tolerate the lowered temperatures. Necessary sum of active temperature above 3000 degrees Celsius. Vegetation period (till consumer's ripeness) 85-100 days for early-ripening grades and 130-150 days for late-ripening grades. Optimum climatic conditions - coastal flat areas. Usually seedling method is used. Grades: Donskoj 14, Universal 6, Konservnyi 10, Almaz, Batajskij, Donetskij urozhajnyi, Dlinnyi fioletovyi 239.

Economic value.

Vegetable culture. Fresh fruits of eggplant contain 7,1-11% dry substances, 2.72-4% sugars, 0.6-1.4% proteins, 1.3 mg/100g iron, 0.05 mg/100g thiamin, 0.05 mg/100g riboflavinum, 0.5 mg/100g vitamin PP, 9 mg/100g vitamin C, mineral solts. Eggplant is prepared as fry, marinate dishes, and use in canning industry. Unripe fruits sometimes use in spicy mixes. Productivity 15-30 (up to 70) ton per hectare.

The literature.

Filov A.I. Pepper and eggplants. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956. 367 p.
Filov A.I. Solanum melongena L. - Eggplant //Culture flora of the USSR. Vol 20. Moscow-Leningrad, 1958. P. 292-369.
Gazenbush V.L. Eggplants //Sorts of vegetables cultures in the USSR. Ed. By D.D. Brezhnev. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960
Ludilov V.A., Fomin V.A. Tomatoes, pepper, eggplants (recommendations). Rostov-na-Donu, 1981, 61 p.
Mamonov E.V. The sort's catalogue. Vegetable cultures. Moscow, 2001, 496 p.
Pleshkov K.K. Vegetable growing of the open and closed ground. Kiev, 1991, 352 p.
Rusanov B.G. Pepper and eggplants. Leningrad, 1988, 75 p.
Rusanov B.G. Pepper and eggplants. St.Petersburg, 2001, 144 p.
The world of cultural plants. The directory / Ed. by. V.D. Baranov, G.V.Ustimenko. Moscow, 1994, 381 p.
Vehov V.N., Gubanov I.A., Lebedeva G.F. Cultural plants of the USSR. Moscow. 1978
Zhuleva V.M., Cherenok L.G. Tomato, pepper, eggplants, ground cherry. Moscow, 2002

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