Triticum durum Desf. - Durum wheat, hard wheat (spring crops)

Taxonomic position.

Family Poaceae Barnhart, genus Triticum L.


T. alatum Peterm., T. vulgare var. - gr. durum Alef., T. turgidum gr. durum (Desf.) Bowden.

Morphology and biology.

n=28. Annual plant. Fibrous root system grows to a depth of 1 m. Stem is a culm with 5-6 nodes, hollow or solid, usually glabrous, 40-160 cm (maximum 2 m) in height. Leaves linear, flat, glabrous or pubescent, 16-35 cm in length, 0.7-1.1 cm in width; where the leaf sheath meets the leaf blade, there are ligula and auricles, often ciliate. Inflorescence ear is 5-13 cm in length, consisting of articulated rechis and spikelets, which combine in two rows on the lateral side. Ear includes 12-30 spikelets consisting of 2-5 flowers; upper one is not developed. Spikelet glume is coriaceous, without longitudinal rugosity and a depression near the base, with wide, well-marked carina that often becomes a triangular, awl-shaped tooth (their size and shape indicate the plant.s variety). Each flower is protected by bicarinate inner palea and aristate lemma, which is bigger. Aristas are long, exceeding ear length, scabrous or glabrous, slightly divergent or parallel. Seeds are glabrous, yellow, from orbicular to lengthened, rotundo-triangular in section, usually glassy. Weight of 1000 seeds ranges from 22-30g (small) to 55-60 g (very large). Characterized by great diversity of forms. Most widespread varieties include Bezenchukskaja 182, Valentina, Elizavetinskaja, Zolotaya Volna, Krasnokutka 10, Orenburgskaja 10, Saratovskaja 59, and Har.kovskaja 46.


Origin unknown. Probable ancestor is T. dicoccum or T. boeoticum Boiss., which is distributed throughout Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. First cultivated in the 4th-3rd millennium B.C. Crop area within the former USSR covers more than 4.8 million hectares. Cultivated in the Saratov, Volgograd, Rostov, and Orenburg regions, in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Western Siberia.


Prefers dry and hot climate. Less resistant to soil drought than bread wheat, but more resistant to atmospheric drought during seed formation. Demands high soil fertility. Vegetation period lasts 75-130 days. Resistant to fungal diseases.

Economical values.

One of the main cereals in the world. Distinguished by its high protein content (12-21%) and high-quality gluten; therefore, it is very valuable in macaroni production, semolina and fine wheat flour making. Productivity is 0.8-2.5 (maximum 3.0) tons per hectare.

Literature cited.

Buyukli P.I. 1983. Winter durum wheat. Kishinev: Shiintsa, 223 p.
Dorofeev V.F., Korovina, O.N., eds. 1979. Cultural flora of the USSR. Vol. 1. Wheat. Leningrad: Kolos, 348 p.
Guzhin I.V., Germantsev L.A., Nefedova D.K. 1984. Durm wheat.Saratov: Privolzhskoe book publisher, 64 p.
Savitskaja V.A., Sinitin S.S., Shirokov A.I. 1987. Durum wheat in Siberia. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 144 p.
Vehov V.N., Gubanov I.A., Lebedeva G.F. 1978. Cultural plants of the USSR. Moscow: Mysl', 336 p.

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