Pseudomonas syringae pv.coronafaciens (Elliott) Young et al. - Halo (Red) Blight Bacteriosis of Oats

Systematic position.

Kingdom Procaryotae, section Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci, family Pseudomonadaceae, genus Pseudomonas.


Bacterium coronafaciens Elliott; Phytomonas coronafaciens (Elliott) Bergey et al.
Ph. avenae (Manns) Bergey et al.; Bacillus avenae Russel; B. avenae Manns; Pseudomonas avenae Manns.

Biological group.


Morphology and biology.

Struck plants have light green spots (4-5 mm in diameter) on leaves, less often on panicles, sheaths, and flower scales. These spots are concave in the center. Later they expand; tissue at these spots dries up in the middle and becomes brown or gray. A halo of light green or yellowish tissue (0.5-2 cm in diameter) is formed around such spots. They can merge. Sometimes the maculation is situated along margins of leaf plate in the shape of longitudinal stripes. In dry warm weather, the diseased tissue becomes brown or red-brown and dries up. Cells of P. syringae pv. coronafaciens are straight sticks, 0.65 mkm x 2.3 mkm in size. Moving by means of one or several polar flagella. Gram-negative. Aerobe. In beef extract (meat infusion) broth, it grows with moderate intensity and with white sediment. Oxidase reaction is negative; producing levan; having a capsule. Producing a fluorescent pigment. In nutrient medium, colonies are round, white, smooth, with poorly raised borders. Curdling and peptonizing milk. Diluting gelatin slowly. Reducing nitrates poorly; not forming indol and NH3. Utilizing glucose, saccharose, levulose with formation of acid. Hydrolyzing starch poorly. Optimum temperature of growth is 24-25°C, minimum 1°C, maximum 31°C. Bacterial infection survives in the diseased vegetation residues and seeds.


Halo Blight Bacteriosis of Oats is present in the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Romania, and other countries growing this culture. The disease is widespread in all territories of the former Soviet Union, northward to Kola Peninsula. There is data on its presence in Leningrad, Voronezh, Kostroma, Pavlodar, Omsk, Moscow, and other Regions, in Altai Territory, Bashkortostan, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine.


The zone of cultivation, weather conditions, and resistance of cultivars to pathogen strongly influence the development of Halo Blight of Bacteriosis of Oats. Application of the increased doses of nitric fertilizer with lack of potash and phosphoric fertilizers increases the harmfulness of this disease.

Economic significance.

In nature, the pathogen of this bacteriosis attack only oats, but can infest rye, barley, wheat, millet, sorghum, Sudanese grass, and lilac through artificial infection. Oat crops may be struck by 30% or more under favorable conditions. Epiphytotics of the Halo Blight Bacteriosis of Oats are observed sporadically, only when favorable combinations of humidity and temperature for the pathogen exist (humidity and temperature). In some years, 25-35% of oat plants were diseased in the Voronezh Region, and more than half in conditions of the Moscow Region. Control measures include optimal agriculture, maintenance of crop rotation, cultivation of relatively resistant varieties, careful removal of plant residues, separating seeds from shrunken grains, treatment of seeds by pesticides before sowing, and treatment of plants by pesticides during vegetation period.

Reference citations:

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