Cucumber mosaic virus (necrotic strain) - Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) (necrotic strain)
Systematic position.Group Cucumovirus, family Bromoviridae. ICTV decimal code: 10.0.4.0.001.
Synonyms.Cucumber mosaic Jonson, Cucumis virus 1 Smith, Murialba cucumeris Vallea, Marmor cucumeris Holmes, Aphidophilus cucumeris Ryzkov.
Biological group.Obligate parasite.
Morphology and biology.The necrotic strain of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) has been first registered in Bulgaria by I.L.Kovachevskii. This disease is most harmful in tomatoes, causing symptoms on fruits in addition to leaves. The infected leaves have filaments, while infected fruits have streaks in the form of necrotic rings and stripes of brown color. Complete die-back of plant tips is observed. The CMV has spherical particles of 28-30 nm in diameter. Temperature for the virus inactivation is 60-76.C, limiting dilution is 1: 10 000, loss of infectivity in sap is in 6-8 days. The CMV belongs to a group of pathogens forming natural foci, being one of the most widespread and harmful phytoviruses. According to the recent data, a list of host plants includes 775 species belonging to 365 genera and 85 families. The CMV spread in nature is realized by means of aphid vectors. More than 20 aphid species are known, being able to transfer the virus from wild-growing plants to cultural ones. In most cases, epiphytoties are provoked by such aphid species as Aphis gossipii, A. nasturtii and Myzus persicae. The last species is most frequently registered as the main vector at development of CMV epiphytoties.
Distribution.The virus is distributed everywhere within potato growing in the territory of the former USSR. In the territory of the Former USSR, the Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is distributed everywhere within tomatoes growing in opened and closed ground.
Ecology.Worldwide distribution of the CMV emphasizes independence of the virus on ecological factors, although presence of the virus natural foci considerably influences frequency of epiphytoties.
Economic significance.Broad specialization of the CMV allows to infect many cultural plants, and its necrotic strain harmfulness in tomatoes in the years of epiphytoties can reach 80-100%. The CMV severity is registered in Baltic States, in the Northern Caucasus, in republics of Central Asia, in Byelorussia, Moldova, Ukraine, in Lower Volga region, Krasnodar Territory, in Khabarovsk and other territories of the Russian Far East.
Reference citations:Ges. D.K. 1968. Virus diseases of tomatoes and cucumbers in Byelorussia. PhD Thesis. Minsk: AN BSSR, 22 p. (in Russian).
Glushak L.E. 1969. Virus diseases of cucumbers in Ukraine. PhD Thesis. Kiev: UkrNII Microbiology, 23 p. (in Russian).
Dashkeeva K.N.,Vargina T., Vetrova F. 1968. Cucumber Mosaic Virus . agent of diseases of vegetable cultures. Sel.skoe khozyaistvo Moldavii 6: 51-52 (in Russian).
Ignash Ya.R. 1977. Comparative characteristics of some representatives of Cucumber Mosaic Virus, group 1, isolated in Latvian SSR. In: Reifman V.G., ed. Strains of plant viruses. Proc. Biol.-soil Inst., v.48(149), p.193-197 (in Russian).
Parshin V.G. 1974. Natural foci of Cucumber Mosaic Virus and their significance in development of virus epiphytoties. PhD Thesis. Leningrad: VIZR, 23 p. (in Russian).
Samsonova L.N., Tsyplenkov A.E., Yakutkina T.A. 2001. Diagnostics of virus and phytoplasma diseases of vegetable cultures and potato. Saint-Petersburg: VIZR, 50 p. (in Russian).
Stanyulis Yu.P., Makunaite M.K., Zitikaite I.S. 1977. Some properties of virus isolates of the cucumber mosaic (CMV), allocated from leguminous and ornamental plants in Lithuania. In: Reifman V.G., ed. Strains of plant viruses. Proc. Biol.-soil Inst., v.48(149), p.198-203 (in Russian).
Tsyplenkov A.E. 1986. Study of pathogenicity of virus isolates of cucumber mosaic. In: Biological methods of plant protection against virus and bacterial diseases. Leningrad: VIZR, p. 49 (in Russian).
Tsyplenkov A.E., Odinets A.G., Kirillov A.V. 1992. Identification of Cucumber Mosaic Virus strains from various agricultural crops. Sel.skokhozyaistvennaya biologiya 5: 115-121 (in Russian).
Vlasov Yu.I., Larina E.I., Teploukhova T.N. 1972. Virus diseases of tomatoes in Central Asia and measures of their control. Bulletin VIZR (Leningrad) 24: 58-62 (in Russian).