Pseudomonas syringae pv.pisi (Sackett) Young et al. - Bacterial Blight of Peas.

Systematic position.

Kingdom Procaryotae, section Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci, family Pseudomonadaceae, genus Pseudomonas.


Pseudomonas pisi Sackett; Bacterium pisi (Sackett) E. F. Smith; Phytomonas pisi (Sackett) Bergey et al.

Biological group.


Morphology and biology.

Bacteriosis causes vascular disease of peas. Pathogen attacks all ground parts of plant (stems, leafstalks, leaves, stipules, beans). On leaves, stems, and beans, it forms brown round spots with a dark center , which is surrouunded by a with wide border. Spots are yellow, round and, poorly pressed-in on seeds. Bacteria penetrate into vascular bunches and cause withering of peas. A combination of hot weather with plentiful dews or long rainy periods increases distribution and severity of this bacteriosis. Cells of P. syringae pv. pisi are straight bacilli, usually 0.6-0.8 x 1.1-3.2 mkm in size, moving by means of polar flagellum (monotrich). Gram-negative. Aerob. Pathogen has no dormant stage. On potato agar, colonies are gray-white, and round. Nitrate reduction is negative. Producing NH3 produces NH3. Not producing indol or H2S. Not hydrolyzing starch. Forming levan and fluorescing pigment. Not diluting gelatin in form of funnel. Curdling and slowly peptonizing milk. Optimum temperature of growth is 27-28°C, maximum 37.5°C, minimum 7°C. Primary infection survives in infected vegetation residues and seeds of pea until the next season.


Infection is favored by high air temperatures (25-30°C) and high RH of air, 90% or above.


The Bacterial Blight of peas is distributed in the USA, Canada, Uruguay, England, Ireland, Hungary, Romania, Australia, and other countries. This disease is present in all territories of the former USSR; i.e., in Leningrad, Moscow, Yaroslavl, Kirov, Voronezh, Kursk, Rostov, Samara, and other Regions of the European part of Russia; in the Krasnodar, Altai, and Krasnoyarsk Territories, in the Republic of Altai, in Tyva; and also in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine.

Economic significance.

Pathogen also attacks sweet pea, peavine, cowpea, and other leguminous cultures. Severity of the Bacterial Blight of Peas appears in the amount of dying of the most part of leaf plates and valves of bean-pods in the diseased plants. It results in significant reduction of assimilative surface and productivity of such plants. Up to 35% of plants are attacked in the Kokshetau Region (Kazakhstan). In Armenia, this bacteriosis attacks 1.3 to 42% of plants depending on conditions of the vegetation season, climate zone, and resistance of variety. In Moldova, yield losses reach up to 70% at strong severity. The specified regions of high severity do not belong to areas of the greatest distribution of peas. Control measures include optimal farming techniques, maintenance of crop rotation, cultivation of resistant varieties, careful destruction of vegetation residues, cleaning of sowing seeds, seed dressing before sowing, spraying of plants during vegetation, struggle against aphids being vectors of bacterial infection.

Reference citations:

Bel'tyukova K.I. 1958. Bacterial diseases of leguminous cultures: string beans and peas. DSc Thesis. Kiev: AN UkrSSR, 24 p. (in Russian).
Bilai V.I., Gvozdyak R.I., Kraev V.G., Ellanskaya I.A., Zirka T.I. & Muras V.A. 1988. Microorganisms are the pathogens of diseases of plants. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 552 p. (in Russian).
Bondartseva-Monteverde V.N. & Vasilevskii N.I. 1937. Ascochyta blight of peas. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, 88 p. (in Russian).
Bushkova L.N. 1966. Bacterial diseases of peas. In: Polyakov I.Ya., ed. Pests and diseases distribution on agricultural crops in RSFSR in 1965 and the forecast of their appearance in 1966. Moscow: Rosselkhozizdat, p.125-126 (in Russian).
Cheremisinov N.Ya. & Khizhnyak P.Ya. 1964. Struggle with rust and bacterioses of peas and fodder beans. Moscow: Kolos, 8 p. (in Russian).
Dubinevich B.N. 1964. Efficiency of treatment of seeds of peas. Zachshita rastenii protiv vreditelei i boleznei 12: 14-15 (in Russian).
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Gorlenko M.V. 1966. Bacterial diseases of plants. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 291 p. (in Russian).
Khaleeva Z.N. 1963. Diseases of peas. In: Polyakov I.Ya., ed. Pests and diseases distribution on agricultural crops in the USSR in 1962 and the forecast of their occurrence in 1963. Leningrad: Krasnyi pechatnik, p. 188-191 (in Russian).
Khaleeva Z.N. & Tikhonova N.A. 1964. Diseases of peas. In: Polyakov I.Ya. & Chumakov A.E., eds. Pests and diseases distribution on agricultural crops in the USSR in 1963. Works of VIZR, v. 22. Leningrad: Glavpolygrafprom, p. 238-243 (in Russian).
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Musaev T.S. 1964. Main infectious diseases of peas in conditions of the Samarkand Region. In: Proskoryakov E.I. & Kukles I.S., eds. Works of the Samarkand state university, v. 151. Samarkand: Ministerstvo obrazovaniya Uzbekskoi SSR, p. 158-162 (in Russian).
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Papoyan F.A. 1964. Specific structure and prevalence of diseases of peas and horse beans in Armenian SSR. In: Agadzhanyan G.H., ed. Novosti selskokhozyaistvennoi nauki 11-12. Yerevan: Glavpolygrafprom Armyanskoi SSR, p. 160-169 (in Armenian).
Papoyan F.A. 1966. Diseases of peas and horse beans in Armenia and development of control measures against some of them. PhD Thesis. Yerevan, 25 p. (in Russian).
Rozhkovan V. 1980. Bacterial burn of peas. In: Koditsa N.V., ed. Selskoe khozyaistvo Moldavii 9: 24-25 (in Russian).
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Vlasov Yu.I., ed. 1962. Methodical instructions on recognition and account of pests and diseases of peas, fodder beans and estimation of efficiency of their control. Moscow: Izdatelstvo selskokhozyaistvennoi literatury, zhurnalov i plakatov, 232 p. (in Russian).
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Photo is taken from the Archive of documentary photographs of the Institute of Phytopathology and Plant Protection at University of Goettingen (Germany) and is published with the kind sanction of Prof. Dr. K. Naumann (Germany).

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