Area of the False Loose Smut of Barley (pathogen - Ustilago nigra Tapke).

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist O.S. Afanasenko, GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of maps of natural scale 1:33 000.000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution and zones of disease severity are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Area is subdivided into zones of low and moderate severity. U. nigra is most important in the Central Region of the Chernozem Region, in the North-East of the Non-Chernozem Region, South Ural, Povolzhie (Volga Region), West Siberia and also in North Kazakhstan. The zone of moderate harm was determined according to the literature and is found to be with the frequency of disease occurrence more than 20% in relation to the Loose smut. Local epiphytotic can take place in any agroclimatic zone at infringement of agrotechnical norms (crop by the non treatment seeds). That is why it is impossible to designate a zone of high epiphytotic frequencies.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. The publications of Ishkova et al. (2000) and Mathre (1997) were used for the general information on the life-cycle of the pathogen and host plants. The zones of disease severity were determined according to the following sources: Andreev (1977), Ishkova et al. (2000), Kozhevnikova (1970), Stepanovskikh (1970), Tyunin & Kushnirenko (1981), Tulina & Maltseva (1976).

Reference citations:

Andreev P.S. 1977. About species of causal agents of Barley Loose Smut in conditions of Kuibyshev Region and some its morphological and biological features. In: Agrotehnic and Biology of Field Cultures. Ufa. 66-68 pp. (In Russian)
Ishkova T.I., Berestetskaya L.I., Gasich E.L., Levitin M.M., Vlasov D.Yu. 2000. Diagnostic of the main diseases of cereals. Saint Petersburg: VIZR. 76 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kozhevnikova L.M. 1970. Species of Barley Loose Smut in Voronezh Region. Plant Protection against pests and diseases, 2: 19-20. (In Russian)
Mathre D.E., ed. 1997. Compendium of barley diseases. St. Paul, Minnesota: APS PRESS. 90 p.
Stepanovskikh A.S. 1970. Studies of species structure of Barley Loose Smut in virgin region, Kurgan and Chelyabinsk Regions. In: Proceedings of Kurgan Agricultural Institute, Plant Protection of Agricultural Cultures Against Pests and Diseases. Kurgan: KSKhI. 17-26 pp. (In Russian)
Tulina L.R., Maltseva A.I. 1976. False Loose Smut of Barley in North-East region of Non-Chernozem Region of RSFSR. Mycology and Phytopathology, 10(5): 397-402. (In Russian)
Tyunin V.A., Kushnirenko I.U. 1981. Species structure and distribution of causal agents of Barley loose Smut in Chelyabinsk Region. In: Regional Systems of Plant Protection against Pests and Diseases in Siberia. Novosibirsk. 29-31 pp. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004 © O.S. Afanasenko & M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map, description).

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