Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus. - Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

Systematic position.

Kingdom Vira, group Tobamovirus, family Tobamoviridae.


Tobacco mosaic virus Clinton; Ordinary tobacco mosaic virus Jonson; Tobacco green mosaic virus Mc Kinney; Tobacco A virus Fernow; Nicotiana virus 1 Smith; Marmor tabaci var. vulgare Holmes, Musivum tobaci Valleau.

Biological group.


Morphology and biology.

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) has strict rod-shaped virions, 300 nm long, 18 nm wide. TIP is 90-93°C; LIV is 3000 days and at least 3 years in dried leaf; DEP is 1: 100000. It is one of the most dangerous and distributed phytoviruses. On many Solanaceae, it causes such symptoms as mosaic, streak, internal browning, enations on leaves and fruits. The virus is transmitted without a vector, by mechanical inoculation, at contact between plants, by seeds, not transmitted by pollen. The list of host plants includes 9 families.


TMV is probably distributed worldwide. In the former USSR, the virus is distributed everywhere. The disease severity is registered in Baltic States, the Northern Caucasus, Transcaucasia, republics of Central Asia, Byelorussia, Moldova, Ukraine, Krasnodar Territory, Lower Volga Region, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and the Far East.


Worldwide distribution of TMV emphasizes independence of the virus on ecological factors. Its presence in seeds is greatly influenced by frequency of epiphytoties.

Economic significance.

Broad specialization of TMV means that it can infect many cultural plants, and yield losses in gourd, solanaceous, and leguminous cultures can reach 20-70%. TMV is especially harmful in republics of Central Asia, in the Northern Caucasus, and Volga Region.

Reference citations:

Dyachenko N.N. 1960. Resistance of cultivars and hybrids of tomatoes to tobacco mosaic virus. In: Sukhov K.S., ed. Virus diseases of agricultural plants and measures of their control. Moscow: MSKh SSSR, p.184-191 (in Russian).
Ges. D.K. 1968. Virus diseases of tomatoes and cucumbers in Byelorussia. PhD Thesis. Minsk: AN BSSR, 22 p. (in Russian).
Grushevoi S.E. 1960. Virus diseases of tobacco and measures of its control. In: Sukhov K.S., ed. Virus diseases of agricultural plants and measures of their control. Moscow: MSKh SSSR, p. 127-135 (in Russian).
Samsonova L.N., Tsyplenkov A.E., Yakutkina T.A. 2001. Diagnostics of virus and phytoplasma diseases of vegetable cultures and potato. Saint-Petersburg: VIZR, 50 p. (in Russian).
Tsyplenkov A.E. 1974. Identification of virus diseases of tomatoes in lower zone of Volga Region. In: S.N. Moskovets, ed. Viruses and virus diseases of plants. Kiev: Naukova dumka, p.251-254 (in Russian).
Vlasov Yu.I. & Larina E.I. 1982. Agricultural virology. Moscow: Kolos, p.237 (in Russian).
Vlasov Yu.I. & Larina E.I., Teploukhova T.N. 1972. Virus diseases of tomatoes in Central Asia and measures of their control. Bulletin VIZR (Leningrad) 24: 58-62 (in Russian).
Vlasov Yu.I., Red'ko T.A., Lytaeva G.K. 1973. Virus diseases of vegetable and gourd cultures. Leningrad: Kolos, 71p. (in Russian).

© Tsyplenkov A.E.


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