Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye - Bacterial Spot of Tomato.

Systematic position.

Kingdom Procaryotae, section Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci, family Pseudomonadaceae, genus Xanthomonas.


Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Doidge) Dowson.

Biological group.


Morphology and biology.

The pathogen attacks cotyledons, leaves, leafstalks, stems, and fruits of the tomato. Small round spots (at first dark-green and oily, then black) appear on young leaves. Affected leaves roll up and wither. Spots on stems and leafstalks are black and long. Flowers fall at strong affection of pedicles. Very small dark convex spots (as ulcers) surrounded by border appear on green fruits. Ripe fruits have decayed tissue under spots. Cells of X. campestris pv.vesicatoria are straight bacilli, usually 0.6-0.7 mkm wide and 1.0-1.5 mkm long. They move by use of a single polar flagellum. Gram-negative. Aerob. No resting stages. In nutrient medium, colonies are round, slimy, shining, yellow, with even borders. Not reducing nitrates. Producing H2S from peptone. Hydrolyzing starch. Not forming indol. Oxidase reaction is negative, catalytic reaction is positive. Producing acid from arabinose, glucose, galactose, and fructose (no acid production in some strains). Diluting gelatin slowly. Optimal temperature, 28-30°C; pH 6.8. Primary infection of the pathogen survives in diseased plant residues and in seeds. It may survive in seeds for more than one year.


Black Bacterial Spot of tomato is present in the USA, Canada, Argentina, Bulgaria, Rumania, Italy, Japan, Australia, and Africa. This disease is present in all zones of tomato cultivation in closed ground in all territories of the former USSR. It is marked in Georgia, Kazakhstan, Byelorussia, Moldova, and Ukraine.


Infection is favored by high temperature (25-30°C) and high RH (90% and more) of air. Epiphytotics of the disease are often observed during significant amounts of precipitations and at increased temperature during the vegetation period.

Economic significance.

Pathogen affects plants of the family Solanaceae. Yield losses depend on a cultivated variety. High severity of the disease is marked in the Krasnodar and Altai Territories, in Leningrad, Chita, Omsk, Astrakhan, Volgograd, Rostov, Novosibirsk, Kemerovo Regions, in Kazakhstan and Belarus (especially in areas with hot summer), where affection of seedlings may reach 80-100%, and affection of fruits 70%. Control measures include optimal agriculture, maintenance of crop rotation, cultivation of relatively resistant varieties, careful removal of plant residues, separating seeds from shrunken grains, treatment of seeds before sowing by pesticides, treatment of plants by pesticides during vegetation period.

Reference citations:

Avedzhanova G.P. 1968. Black Bacterial Spot of tomatoes. In: Beltukova K.I, ed. Works of the First All-Union Symposium on bacterial diseases of plants. Kiev: Naukova dumka, p. 326-329 (in Russian).
Bilai V.I., Gvozdyak R.I., Kraev V.G., Ellanskaya I.A., Zirka T.I. & Muras V.A. 1988. Microorganisms are the pathogens of diseases of plants. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 552 p. (in Russian).
Butsenets L. 1971. Black Bacterial Spot of tomatoes. Kartofel i ovoshchi 2: 41 (in Russian).
Bykova G.A. 1992. Biological basis of tomato protection from bacterioses in protected ground of the North West zone of the Russian Federation. PhD Thesis. St. Petersburg: VIZR, 18 p. (in Russian).
Firsov V.F. 1980. Stimulation of tomatoes against Black Bacterial Spot. Ecology of pests and diseases of plants in Kazakhstan and measures of their control. In: Kostin I.A., ed. Thematic collection of proceedings. Alma-Ata: Ministerstvo selskogo khozyaistva SSSR, p. 86-89 (in Russian).
Gorlenko M.V. & Voronkevich I. B. 1950. Black Bacterial Spot of tomatoes. In: Mosolov V.P., ed. Reports of VASKHNIL, V. 3. Moscow: Ministerstvo selskogo khozyaistva USSR, p. 24-29 (in Russian).
Gvozdyak R.I., Yakovleva L.M., Chernenko E.P. & Moroz S.M. 2005. Relations between tomato bacterial diseases pathogens. In: Podgorskii V.S., ed. Phytopathogenic bacteria. Phytoncidology. Allelopathy. Collection of articles of participants of the International Scientific Conference. Kiev: Gosudarstvennyi agroekologicheskii universitet, p.118-122 (in Ukrainian).
Guseva L.I. & Atlukhanov A.M. 1985. Black Bacterial Spot of tomatoes in Moldova. In: Gvozdyak R.I., ed. Bacterial diseases of plants (abstracts of reports). Part 2. Kiev: Naukova dumka, p. 62-63 (in Russian).
Guseva L.I. & Atlukhanov A.M. 1990. Feature of selection of tomato on resistance to black bacterial rot. In: Gvozdyak R.I., ed. Phytoncides. Bacterial diseases of plants. Materials of conference. Part 2. Kiev & Lvov: KGT-2, p. 74 (in Russian).
Kabashnaya L.V. & Shaban M.A. 1989. Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv.vesicatoria . pathogens of bacterioses of tomatoes in Ukraine. In: Smirnov V.V., ed. Abstracts of Reports of VII Congress of the Ukrainian microbiological society. Part 2. Kiev: Naukova dumka, p. 12-13 (in Russian).
Knyazeva Z.V. 1985. About severity of Black Bacterial Spot of tomato. In: Gvozdyak R.I., ed. Phytoncides. Bacterial diseases of plants (abstracts of reports). Part 2. Kiev: Naukova dumka, p. 67 (in Russian).
Komarova M.S. & Korunets I.V. 1997. Biological means for struggle against bacterioses of tomatoes. Zashchita i karantin rastenii 4: 27 (in Russian).
Kvasnikov B. & Bogdanova G. 1975. Resistance of tomato cultivars to Black Bacterial Spot. Kartofel i ovoshi 6: 38-39 (in Russian).
Matyshevskaya M.S., 1961. Biology of agent of Black Bacterial Spot of tomatoes. I. Growth and formation of toxin of Xanthomonas vesicatoria on some nutrient media. In: Aizenman B.Ya., ed. Mikrobiologicheskii zhurnal 23 (6): 27-31 (in Ukrainian).
Matyshevskaya M.S., 1962. Biology of agent of Black Bacterial Spot of tomatoes. II. Effect of the filtrate of X. vesicatoria culture on the intensity of respiration and some oxidizing enzymes of tomato sprouts. In: Aizenman, B. Ya., ed. Mikrobiologicheskii zhurnal 24 (1): 25-30 ( in Ukrainian).
Nikitina E.T. & Lapukhina G.P. 1961. Pathogen of Black Bacterial Spot of tomatoes in agricultural farms of the Alma-Ata suburban zone. In: Balitskaya A.K., ed. Works of Institute of microbiology and virology. V.4. Alma-Ata: AN Kazakh SSR, p. 140-145 (in Russian).
Oragvelidze L.D. 1976. Influence of external factors on development of the pathogen of Black Spot of tomato Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Doidge) Dowson. In: Kanchaveli L., ed. Works of NIIZR of Georgian SSR. V. 28. Tbilisi: Anonym publ., p. 28-30 (in Georgian).
Oragvelidze L.D. & Tsilosani G.A. 1977. Resistance of cultivars and specialization of the pathogen of bacteriosis of tomato. In: Vasilyan V.V., ed. Abstracts of eighth session of the Transcaucasian board on coordination of research works on plant protection, 14-16 Dec. 1977. Yerevan: Zakavkazskoe otdelenie VASKHNIL, p. 177-178 (in Russian).
Pavlyushin V.A., ed. 2003. Methodical recommendations on studying bacterial diseases of tomato and measures of their control. St. Petersburg: VIZR, 29 p. (in Russian).
Pavlyushin V.A. & Makarov A.A., eds. 1999. Bacterial diseases of tomato and potato and measures of their control (methodical recommendations). St. Petersburg: VIZR, 30 p. (in Russian).
Poliksenova V.D. 2001. Retrospective review of tomato diseases in Belarus and perspective of phytopathological situation development. In: Soroka S.V., ed. Plant Protection on the Boundary of XXI century. Book of Abstracts of Scientific and Practical Conference (to the 30th anniversary of BelSRIPP). Minsk & Priluki: Belbiznesspress, p. 225-228 (in Russian).
Prishchepa L.I. & Pevets N.V. 2004. Bacterial diseases of tomato in conditions of closed ground in Belarus. Zashchita rastenii 4: 25-26 (in Russian).
Terekhina N.V. 2004. Area of tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.). www.agroatlas.spb.ru .
Tsilosani G.A., Oragvelidze L.D., Eliashvili P.K. & Chubushvili L.N. 1975. Black Bacterial Spot of tomatoes in Georgia. In: Mamedova S.R., ed. Materials of the seventh session of the Transcaucasian board on coordination of research works on plant protection. Kirovabad: Zakavkazskoe otdelenie VASKHNIL, p. 34-36 (in Russian).

© Lazarev A.M.

Photo 1 is taken from Archive of documentary photographs of Federal Management on research on selection of cultural plants (Aschersleben, Germany) and is published with the kind sanction of Prof. Dr. K. Naumann (Germany).
Photo 2 is published with the kind sanction of F.A.Popov (Belarus).

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