Distribution of Brown Fruit Rot (Monilia fructigena Pers.)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist- I.V. Bilder,
GIS-specialist- M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of map of natural scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution and zones of disease severity are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Distribution was determined according to regions where Fruit Rot is registered on apple according to the published scientific materials. Within the limits of the disease area three zones of severity were allocated. The disease occurs at least 1 time in 2 years or almost annually in the zone of high severity, 1 time in 3 years in the zone of moderate development, and 1 time in 5 years in the zone low severity.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. Distribution of the disease was presented on the map within the limits of fruit-growing in the countries of the former USSR, coinciding with the area of fruit cultures according to Tochenov et al. (1984). The area also covers the nuciferous forests in Kirgizia (Venglovskii & Kolov, 1995). In the zone of high severity the disease is found in the northwestern, central regions, areas of southern Ural, Altai, Siberia, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, republics of Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria and the Black Sea coast according to Khokhryakova (1971) and Smolyakova (2000). Moderate development of the disease occurs in Transcaucasia, the Far East, Moldova, the south of Ukraine and Byelorussia according to the following sources: Vishnevetskaya (1969), Khokhryakova (1971), Onufreichik (1974), Grigorevich (1997). At a low level of severity the disease develops in the Almaty region of fruit growing in Kazakhstan, and in Lithuania according to the following sources: Rashinskene (1974), Ismailova & Koishibaev (1999).

Reference citations:

Ablakatova A.A. 1965. Mycoflora and the main fungal diseases of fruit plants in the south of the Far East. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 146 p. (In Russian)
Burkeev D.D., Trusevitsh A.W., Burkeev Ya.D. 2000. Ascigerous stage of Monilia fructigena is found in the Kursk Region. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, 1: 3637. (In Russian)
Grigorevich L.N. 1997. Incidence and harmfulness of the main diseases of apple and pear in gardens of Byelorussia cultivated under intensive technology. Actual problems of phytovirology and plant protection. Minsk: Ekaunt. 117118 p. (In Russian)
Ismailova E.T., Koishibaev M. 1999. Fruit Rot of fruit crops. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, 9: 1617. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Onufreichik N.G. 1974. Efficacy of Policarbacin in control of moniliosis of apple at different repetition of treatments of garden. Rational problems of plant protection from pests, diseases and weeds. Gorki: Byelorussian agricultural academy. 2731 p. (In Russian)
Rashinskene A. 1974. Fruit Rot of apple in garden and resistance of some cultivars of apple in Lithuanian SSR. Short results of scientific researches on plant protection. Riga: Management NTI. 7778 p. (In Russian)
Smolyakova V.M. 2000. Fungal diseases of fruit trees in South Russia. Krasnodar: Vest.. 192 p. (In Russian)
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 260 p. (In Russian)
Vishnevetskaya A.M. 1969. Some factors of resistance of apple to Fruit Rot. Works of 5th All-Union meeting on immunity of plants. Kiev: VASKhNIL, USKhA. 4550 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004 © I.V. Bilder & M.I. Saulich (vector map and description); I.V. Bilder (photo).

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