Distribution and severity zones of Brown Spot of Apple (Phyllosticta mali Prill et Del)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist- I.V. Bilder,
GIS-specialist- M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:




Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of map of natural scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution and zones of disease severity are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Distribution was determined according to regions where the Brown Spot is registered on apple according to published scientific materials. Within the limits of the disease area three zones of severity were allocated. The disease occurs at least 1 time in 2 years or almost annually in the zone of high severity, 1 time in 3 years in the zone of moderate development, and 1 time in 5 years in the zone of low severity.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. Distribution of the disease is shown on the map within the limits of fruit-growing in the countries of the former USSR and coincides with the area of fruit cultures. High development of the Brown Spot of Apple is observed in the Krasnodar and Stavropol erritories, in the Black Sea zone, Kabardino-Balkaria, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Alania (Smolyakova, 2000). Moderate development of the disease occrs in Byelorussia and some areas of Moldova according to the following sources: Kuntsevich (1976), Sevryukova (1980). The zone of low disease severity includes the northern zone of Moldova and the Far East according to the following sources: Ablakatova (1965), Koropatyuk (1974).

Reference citations:

Ablakatova A.A. 1965. Mycoflora and the main fungal diseases of fruit plants in the south of the Far East. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 146 p. (In Russian)
Byzova Z.M., Vasyagina M.P., Deeva N.G., Kalymbetov B.K., Pisareva N.F., Shvartsman, S.R. 1967. Flora of spore plants of Kazakhstan. V. 5. Part 1. Sphaeropsidales. Alma-Ata: Nauka. 339 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Koropatyuk E.E. 1974. Brown Spot on leaves of apples. Sadovodstvo, vinogradarstvo i vinodelie v Moldavii (Kishinev), 3: 36-38. (In Russian)
Kuntsevich L.V. 1976. Spot of apple. Fruit cultures. Minsk: Urozhai. 262-268 p. (In Russian)
Sevryukova M.V. 1980. Epiphytoty of Brown Spot of apple. Sadovodstvo, vinogradarstvo i vinodelie v Moldavii (Kishinev), 2: 47-48. (In Russian)
Sheliya T.G. 1954. Spots of apple leaves. Works of experimental station of orcharding. V. 3. Tbilisi: AN Georgian SSR. 249-255 p. (In Russian)
Smolyakova V.M. 1970. About harmfulness of phyllostictous spots of apple in Kuban region and features of construction of its control. Problems of a gardening of Northern Caucasus (abstracts of conference). Krasnodar: SZNIISV, KKNTOSKH. 161-163 p. (In Russian)
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 260 p. (In Russian)
Zhukova V.D. 1964. Brown Spot of Apple and measures of its control. Works of Krasnoyarsk research institute of agriculture. V. 2. Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk Publishing House. 163-164 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004 © I.V. Bilder & M.I. Saulich (vector map and description); I.V. Bilder (photo).

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