Distribution and severity of Powdery Mildew of Apple (Podosphaera leucotricha E.S. Salmon)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist - I.V. Bilder,
GIS-specialist - M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:




Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of map of natural scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution and zones of disease severity are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The distribution was determined according to the regions where the Powdery Mildew of Apple is registered according to published scientific materials. Within the limits of disease distribution, three zones of disease severity were established. In the zone of high severity the disease occurs once in 2 years or annually. In the zone of moderate severity the disease occurs once in 3 years. In the zone of low severity it occurs once in 5 years.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. The disease distribution was presented within the limits of the CIS and Baltic States, coincided with the area of apple cultivation according to the following sources: Ablakatova (1965), Zherbele & Ivanova (1984), Kobakhidze (1963), Kobakhidze (1971). Development of epiphytoties of Powdery Mildew (once in 2 years where the percent of infection is 50-100%) is observed in the Alma-Ata region of fruit growing in Kazakhstan and in Central Asia, Transcaucasia, in some areas of the Northern Caucasus (in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories), in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Latvia, Ukraine and Moldova. The regions where powdery mildew has moderate development (once in 3 years where the percent of infection is 30-50%) includes some areas of Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Transcarpathia, Chechnya and Ingushetia. The lowest degree of disease severity (once in 5 years where the percent of infection is 10-30%) is observed in some regions of Ukraine, central areas of Chernozem Zone, Baltics, Volga River Region, and also in the Northern Caucasus (Kabardino-Balkaria, Northern Ossetia). The following sources were used to determine the above mention zones: Zherbele & Ivanova (1984), Kobakhidze (1963), Kobakhidze (1971).

Reference citations:

Ablakatova A.A. 1965. Mycoflora and the basic fungal diseases of fruit plants of the south of the Far East. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 146 p. (In Russian)
Kobakhidze D.M. 1963. Powdery Mildew of apple. Distribution of pests and diseases of agricultural crops in the USSR in 1962 and the forecast of their appearance in 1963. Leningrad: VIZR. 266270 p. (In Russian)
Kobakhidze D.M. 1971. Powdery Mildew of apple. Procedure of the territorial many-years forecast of diseases of plants. Leningrad. 28-29 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Zherbele I.Ya., Ivanova V.S. 1984. Powdery Mildew of apple in Latvia. Zashchita rastenii. N. 6. Moscow: Kolos. 28-29 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004© I.V. Bilder & M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map and description); I.V. Bilder (VIZR; photo).

Web design —
Kelnik studios