Distribution and severity zones of Sphaeropsis malorum Peck.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist - I.V. Bilder,
GIS-specialist - M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of map of natural scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution and zones of disease severity are shown by polygons.

Accuracy classifier:

Distribution was determined according to regions where the Sphaeropsis Black Rot is registered on fruit crops according to the published scientific materials. Within the limits of the disease area three zones of severity were allocated. The disease occurs at least 1 time in 2 years or almost annually in the zone of high severity, 1 time in 3 years in the zone of moderate development, and 1 time in 5 years in the zone of low severity.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. Distribution of the disease is shown on the map within the limits of fruit-growing in the countries of the former USSR, i.e., in Georgia, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kherson, Donetsk and Lugansk Regions of Ukraine. High severity of the Sphaeropsis Black Rot of Apple is observed in Adygea, Lithuania, Armenia. Moderate severity of the disease occrs in all areas of West Ciscaucasia according to the following sources: Ogonyan & Mkrtchyan (1963), Barsukova (1969, 1973, 1977), Ekimova (1971), Myalova (1969), Paterilo (1975), Tsupkova (1976), Pyshina (1978), Smol'yakova (2000).

Reference citations:

Barsukova O.N. 1969. Lesion of black rot in apple fruit. Works of V Conference All-Union of Plant Immunity. Kiev: VASHNIL USHA. Issue 14. 54-58 p. (In Russian)
Barsukova O.N. 1973. Distribution and harmfulness of Black Rot in apple. In: Brezhnev D.D., ed. Works of applied botany, genetics and selection (Leningrad: VASHNIL VNIIP) 50(2): 142-146. (In Russian)
Barsukova O.N. 1977. Black Rot of apple. Dawns of Country. V. 7. Krasnodar: Soviet Kuban. 59-60 p. (In Russian)
Ekimova K.I. 1971. Black Rot of apple in Donbass. In: Popov C.P., ed. Release of conference for teachers and specialists of agricultural. Petrozavodsk: Ministry of higher and specialized secondary education RSFSR PGU. 92-96 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Myalova L.A. 1969. Black Rot of apple in Lower Dnepr Region. Khar'kov: Ministry of agricultural USSR HSHI. 21 p. (In Russian)
Oganyan E.A., Mkrtchyan G.G. 1963. Black Rot of apple in north areas of Armenian USR. In: Tovmasyan M.A., ed. Collection of scientific works. Erevan: Ministry of manufacture and storage agricultural produce Armenia USR, Armenian Agricultural Institute. 286-295 p. (In Russian)
Paterilo G.A. 1975. Black Rot of apple in intensive gardens. Gardening, winegrowing and winemaking in Moldavia. V. 7. Kishinev: TsK KP Moldavia. 39-40 p. (In Russian)
Pyshina Z.S. 1978. Black Rot. Zashchita rastenii 11: 52. (In Russian)
Smol.yakova V.M. 2000. Fungal diseases of fruit trees in South Russia. Krasnodar: Vest.. 192 p. (In Russian)
Tsupkova N.A. 1976. Black Rot. Zashchita rastenii 5: 63. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © I.V. Bilder & M.I. Saulich (VIZR, vector map and description); I.V. Bilder (VIZR, photo).

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