Area of distribution and zone of severity of Black Leg (Soft Rot) of Potato Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (van Hall) Dye.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist - A.M. Lazarev,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map consists of three thematic layers describing the zones of high, moderate, and low severity of the disease on potato.

Accuracy of the classifier:

The area represents the disease distribution where the Black Leg of Potato has been revealed according to scientific publications. The distribution is submitted by regions where the black leg (soft decay) of potato is registered on this culture after the published scientific materials. The zone of high severity of this disease is determined in those regions where the bacteriosis has ubiquitous distribution, having frequently epiphitotic characters (from 50 to 100% of the surveyed plantings with the amount of diseased plants 25-30% or more; lesion of tubers reaches 50% in some parts). The zone of moderate severity is determined in those regions where the bacteriosis is shown in some years and when the optimum weather conditions for pathogen are observed, about 50% of surveyed plantings are attacked; thus, the amount of diseased plants makes 10-15%. The zone of low severity is determined in those regions where the weather factors usually break development of bacteriosis during vegetation, lesion of plants makes less than 10% in some years; during storage, the disease is more often shown as soft rot of tubers.

Method of map production:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published materials. The disease distribution is shown on map of the former USSR where this culture is growing; i.e., in the Russian Federation (Kharitonova, 1959; Schneider, 1972; Garin, Kvasha, 1973; Skrynnik, 1975; Bushkova, 1977; Spaar et al., 1980; Bushkova, Lazarev, 1982; Lazarev, 1982,1985, 1990; Pereverzev, 1989, 1990; Pavlyushin & Makarov, 1999; Pavlyushin, 2001), and also in Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Latvia, Armenia, Lithuania, Georgia, Belarus, and Ukraine (Ismailov, 1954; Kazenas, 1954; Binilauskaite, 1959, 1961; Kharitonova, 1959; Khurtsiya, 1972; Chumaevskaya, Gorodiliva, 1974; Generalova, 1975; Bel.skaya et al., 1976; Oganesyan et al., 1976; Derzhipil.skii, 1980; Afanas.eva, 1981; Zateikina, 1984; Davidchik, 1987; Zagurskaya, Sereda, 1989; Davidchik, Khodos, 1990; Sereda, 1993; Sidlyarevich et al., 1998; Giorgobiani et al., 2005). The zone of high severity includes North-Western, Northern, Central (Bryansk, Moscow, Kaluga, Ivanovo, Smolensk Regions), Volgo-Vyatsk, Ural, Far Eastern Areas, Belarus, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia. The zone of moderate severity includes Central Black Earth, Nizhnevolzhskii and Srednevolzhskii Areas, northern Regions of Ukraine (Volynsk, Vinnitsa, Cherkassk, Kiev, Chernigov, Poltava et al.), Central (Ryazan, Tula Regions). The zone of low severity covers North Caucasian, West Siberian and East Siberian Areas of Russia, southern areas of Ukraine (Crimean, Nikolaev, Odessa, Kharkov, Kherson Regions et al.), Moldova, Kazakhstan, Central Asian Republics (Binilauskaite, 1959, 1961; Shneider, 1972; Generalova, 1975; Bel.skaya et al., 1976; Bushkova, Lazarev, 1982; Lazarev, 1985; Davidchik, 1987; Zagurskaya, Sereda, 1989; Davidchik, Khodos, 1990; Pavlyushin & Makarov, 1999). Specification of configuration of borders of the disease area is executed on a map of distribution of the potato, proposed by Koroleva I.E.et al. (2003).

Reference citations:

Afanas.eva I.M. 1981. Resistance of potato to the black leg. Plant protection in republics of Baltic and Belarus. In: Onaitis A.P., ed. Abstracts of reports of scientific-production conference. Vilnius: NTO sel.skogo khozyaistva Lithovskoi SSR. Part II. p. 7-8 (in Russian).
Bel.skaya S.I., Dorozhkin N.A. & Generalova I.V. 1976. Results of research of potato bacterioses. In: Kulesh S.V., ed. Abstracts of reports of scientific-practical conference. Ways of introduction of progressive methods of plant protection to agricultural production. Diseases of agricultural crops and forests. Riga: MSKH Latviiskoi SSR, p. 79-82 (in Russian).
Binilauskaite I.K. 1959. The black leg in conditions of Lithuanian SSR. Reports of scientific conference on plant protection. In: Vinitskas Z., ed. Vilnius: AN Litovskoi SSR, p. 235-238 (in Russian).
Binilauskaite I.K. 1961. About the black leg of potato caused by Bacterium phytophthorum (Appel) Burgwiz. In: Ozols E.J, ed. Brief results of scientific researches on plant protection in the Baltic zone of the USSR. Riga: Tipografia N 23, Vol. I. p. 139-141 (in Russian).
Bushkova L.N. 1977. The features of development of black leg of potato. In: Gorlenko M.V., ed. Bacterial diseases of plants. Moscow: Kolos, p. 75-77 (in Russian).
Bushkova L.N. & Lazarev A.M. 1982. Distribution of black leg of potato on seed-growing plantings in Leningrad Region. In: Prieditis A., ed. Works of Latvian SKHA. Control against pests and diseases of potato, fruits and vegetable field cultures. Yelgava: Latviiskaya SKHA. Vol. 200. p. 38-40 (in Russian).
Chumaevskaya M.A. & Gorodilova L.M. 1974. Bacterial diseases of agricultural plants in the Tselinograd Region. In: Kandaurov V.I. ed. Selection and Planting. Scientific technical bulletin. Shortandy: VNIIZH, p. 86-92 (in Russian).
Davidchik L.Ya. 1987. About distribution and semiology of bacterial diseases in Latvia. In: Samersov V.F., ed. Protection of agricultural plants in conditions of application of intensive technologies. Abstracts of reports of research-and-production conference. Minsk: Belaruskoe Republikanskoe pravlenie NTO sel.skogo khozyaistva. Part 2. p. 124-125 (in Russian).
Davidchik D.Ya., Khodos S.F. 1990. Bacterial diseases of potato and their pathogens in Latvia. In: Gvozdjak R.I., ed. Materials of conference. Phytoncides. Bacterial diseases of plants. Part II. Kiev & Lvov: KGT-2, p. 71 (in Russian).
Derzhepil.skii L.M. 1980. Bacterioses of potato in Chernovtsy Region. In: Gorlenko M.V., ed. Condition and prospects of development of scientific researches on prevention of resistance in pests and pathogens of diseases to pesticides and development of effectual measures of struggle against bacterial diseases of plants (Abstracts of reports of IV meeting). Moscow: VASKHNIL, p. 56-57 (in Russian).
Garin N.A. & Kvasha V.I. 1973. The influence of duration of potato tuber greensprouting on yield and on lesion of plants by black leg. In: Kuz.min G.T., ed. Works of Far East NIISK. V. 13, part 2. Khabarovsk: Khabarovskoe knizhnoe izdatel.stvo, p. 274-275 (in Russian).
Generalova I.V. 1975. The distribution and severity of black leg and spot decay of potato in Belarus. In: Ambrosov A.L., ed. Materials of Republican conference on plant protection. Minsk: Belarus Respublikanskoe pravlenie NTO sel.skogo khozyaistva, p. 30-31 (in Russian).
Giorgobiani N.S., Elishvili P.K., Keshelava R.F. & Alishvili T.D. 2005. Members of the genus Erwinia - the pathogens of rots of potato and white-head cabbage in Georgia. In: Podgorskii V.S., ed. Phytopathogenic bacteria. Phytoncidology. Allelopathy. Collection of articles of participants of International Scientific Conference. Kiev: Gosudarstvennyi Agroekologicheskii Universitet, p. 40-43 (in Russian).
Ismailov N.D. 1990. Bacterial diseases of potato on seed landings and measures of their control in conditions of the Northeast zone of Kirghiz SSR. PhD Thesis. Moscow: TSKHA. 16 p. (in Russian).
Kazenas L.D. 1954. Diseases of potato in the Alma-Ati Region and its control. Works of republican station of plant protection. Alma-Ata: Kazakhskii VASKHNIL, p. 282-289 (in Russian).
Kharitonova Z.M. 1959. About mechanism of lesion of potato by black leg. In: Ozols E.Y., ed. Brief results of scientific researches on plant protection in a North-West zone of the USSR. Abstracts of reports of XII methodical meeting on plant protection in the North-West zone of the USSR. Riga: Khudozhestvennoe remeslennoe uchilishche poligrafistov, p. 184-185 (in Russian).
Khurtsiya B.N. 1972. Results of studying Pectobacterium phytophthorum (Appel) Waldee - the pathogen of bacteriosis of potato in Georgia. PhD Thesis. Tbilisi: Izdatel.stvo Tbiliskogo universiteta, 29 p. (in Russian)
Koroleva I.E., Vil'chevskaya E,V., Rukhovich D.I. 2003. Vector maps of maximal distribution regions of Potato. www agroatlas. spb. ru.
Lazarev A.M. 1982. The influence of terms and ways of artificial infection of storage potato by pathogens of black leg. In: Prieditis A., ed. Works of Latvian SKHA. Control against pests and diseases of potato, fruits, and vegetable field cultures. Yelgava: Latviiskaya SKHA. Vol. 200, p.55-58 (in Russian).
Lazarev A.M. 1985. Biological features of the pathogen of black leg of potato in the North-Western zone of RSFSR and methods of its diagnostics. PhD Thesis. Leningrad: VIZR, 18 p (in Russian).
Lazarev A.M. 1990. The black leg of potato in the South of the Kamchatka Region. In: Gvozdjak R.I., ed. Phytoncides. Bacterial diseases of plants. Materials of conference. Part II. Kiev & Lvov: KGT-2, p. 63-64 (in Russian).
Oganesyan A.A., Gyusyan M.M. & Vartanyan N.A. 1976. Pathogens of bacterioses in Armenia. In: Kanchavelli L.A. et al., eds. III All-Union conference on bacterial diseases of plants. Tbilisi: Metsniereba, p. 177-178 (in Russian).
Pavlyushin V.A. 2001. Methods of studying bacterioses of potato. Methodical recommendations. St. Petersburg: VIZR, 27 p. (in Russian).
Pavlyushin V.A. & Makarov A.A., eds. 1999. Bacterial diseases of tomato and potato and measures of their control (methodical recommendations). St. Petersburg: VIZR, 30 p. (in Russian).
Pereverzev D.S., ed. 1989. Methodical recommendations on identification of the bacteria attacking potato. Leningrad: VIR, 50 p. (in Russian).
Pereverzev D.S., ed. 1990. Methodical recommendations on diagnostics of black leg and ring rot of potato. Leningrad: VIR, 23 p. (in Russian).
Sereda G.M. 1993. Black leg of potato and development of measures of its control in conditions of Byelorussia. PhD Thesis. Priluki of Minsk Region: BelNI IEP APK. 20 p. (in Russian).
Shneider Yu.I. 1972. Bacterioses of potato, caused by soft bacteria of Pectobacterium, Pseudomonas and Bacillus. DSc Thesis. Moscow: TSKHA, 71 p. (in Russian).
Shpaar D., Kleinkhempel G., Myuller G. & Naumann K. 1980. Bacterioses of cultural plants. Handbook. Moscow: Kolos, 143 p. (in Russian).
Sidlyarevich V.I., Kolyadko N.N., Popov F.A., Prishchepa L.I., Zhukova P.S., Mikulskaya N.I., Bunyaki V.P., Zherdetskaya T.A., Zabara J.M., Evstegneeva N.V., Komarova M.S., Korunets I.V., Lameko V.M., Novikova O.T. & Osipov V.G. 1998. Vegetable cultures. In: Samersov V.F., ed. The integrated systems of protection of agricultural crops from pests, diseases and weeds. Baranovichi: Baranovichevskaya ukrupnennaya tipografiya, p. 61-62 (in Russian).
Skrynnik L.I. 1975. The features of appearance and development of black leg of potato in Kamchatka. In: Yarushin A.M., ed. Proceedings (Vols. 2-3). Khabarovsk: Khabarovskoe knizhnoe izdatel.stvo, p.182-186 (in Russian).
Zagurskaya L.E. & Sereda G.M. 1989. The distribution of bacterial diseases of potato depending on seed quality. In: Samersov V.F., ed. Plant protection. Collection of proceedings of Belarus NIIZR. Vol. 14. Minsk: Urozhai, p. 39-41 (in Russian).
Zateikina G.V. 1984. Bacterioses of potato, caused by bacteria of genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus, in conditions of Belarus. PhD Thesis. Minsk: TSNB AN BSSR, 20 p. (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2007 © A.M. Lazarev & M.I.Saulich (VIZR; vector map); A.M. Lazarev (VIZR, description, raster map).

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