Wheat streak mosaic rymovirus - Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV)
Systematic position.Kingdom Vira, family Potyviridae, genus Rymovirus.
Biological group.Obligatory parasite.
Morphology and biology.Wheat streak mosaic virus has threadlike particles, about 700 nm in length. The temperature for the virus inactivation is 54°C, limiting dilution is 1:1000. The WSMV preservation in sap lasts 4-8 days at 20°C. The Virus circulates by mite Aceria tulipae, also mechanically, but not transferred by contacting plants, slightly by seeds. The Virus has wide circle of hosts from the family Gramineae, it also damages weeds. The most important host is winter wheat where overwintering of mite and virus takes place.
Distribution.The WSMV was first determined in 1963. In the territories of the Former USSR, it is distributed now in all regions of cereal cultivation, especially in Ukraine, Moldova, Baltic States, Uzbekistan, and Russia (in the North Caucasus, Tatarstan, Volga Basin Region and Voronezh Region).
Ecology.Wide distribution of WSMV means that ecological factors do not influence on the Virus. The Virus natural foci determine the frequency of epiphytoties.
Economic significance.Wide specialization of the Virus presents the possibility to infect the main cereal cultures, especially winter wheat. Its severity can reach 40-50% during epiphytoties. High harmfulness is marked in the North Caucasus, Middle Asia.
Reference citations:Dubonosov T.S., Panarin I.V. & Kanevcheva I.S. 1975. Viral diseases of cereals. Moscow: Kolos. 118 p. (in Russian).
Galochkina L.A. 1974. Wheat streak mosaic rymovirus and its relations with vector - mite Aceria tritici Schev. In.: Bobyr' A.D., ed. Viruses and viral diseases of plants. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 193-195p. (in Russian).
Makhmudov E.D. 1982.Viral diseases of cereals in main cereal zones of Kazakh SSR. PhD Thesis. Tbilisi: Georgian NIIZR. 21 p. (in Russian).
Oleinik A.N., Prisovskaya G.V. & Sakhno G.N. 1974. Studying physical and chemical features of wheat streak mosaic rymovirus in Ukraine. In: Bobyr' A.D., ed. Viruses and viral diseases of plants. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 193-195p. (in Russian).
Panarin I.V. 1985. Protection of cereals against viral diseases. Moscow: Rossel'khozizdat. 77 p. (in Russian).
Razvyazkina G.M. 1975. Viral diseases of cereals. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 292 p. (in Russian).
Razvyazkina G.M. and others. 1968. Viral diseases of cereals in Moldova. In: Proceedings of VASKhNIL, N 3. 8-9 p. (in Russian).
Razvyazkina G.M. & Belyanchikova Yu.V. 1966. Wheat streak mosaic rymovirus, its features and distribution in nature. Viral diseases of agricultural plants and control measures. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 317-321 p. (in Russian).
Razvyazkina G.M., Belyanchikova Yu.V. & Pridantseva E.A. 1967. Viral epiphytoty on cereals in Krasnodar Territory. Biologicheskie nauki 12: 118-122.
Razvyazkina G.M. & Gorbunova N. 1965. Wheat streak mosaic. Zashchita rastenii ot vreditelei i boleznei 1: 20 (in Russian).
Razvyazkina G.M., Kalkova E.A. & Belyanchikova Yu.V. 1963. Wheat streak mosaic rymovirus. Zashchita rastenii ot vreditelei i boleznei 9: 54-55 (in Russian).
Tsyplenkov A.E. 1999. Prophylactic measures against viral diseases on cereals. AGRO XXI 4: 16-17 (in Russian).
Vlasov Yu.I., Larina E.I. 1982. Agricultural virology. Moscow: Kolos .p .237 (in Russian).