Winter wheat Russian mosaic cytorhabdovirus - Winter Wheat Russian Mosaic Virus (WWRMV, WWMV)

Systematic position.

Kingdom Vira, genus Cytorhabdovirus. ICTV decimal code: 62.U.P.0.055.


Russian winter wheat mosaic virus, cereal mosaic virus.

Biological group.

Obligate parasite.

Morphology and biology.

The Winter wheat Russian mosaic was first investigated in Voronezh Region by Zazhurilo and Sitnikova (1939). Four types of the disease symptoms are described; i.e., growth lag of mosaic plants, pale green dwarfs, sterility of ears, and simultaneous symptoms of the second and third types of the disease. Nearly all grain crops are infected, but rye to a lesser extent. This virus belongs to Rhabdoviridae, having bacilliform virions with modal length 260 nm and width 60 nm (Razvyazkina, Polyakova, 1969). WWRMW is transmitted by various leafhopper species, such as Psammotetix striatus, Macrostelis laevis, and others. The trans-ovarian WWRMV transmission as well as existence of weeds with WWRMV reservation (Septoria glauca, S. viridis) have been proven.


Within the Former Soviet Union, the WWRMV is distributed in Ukraine, Moldova, Byelorussia, Baltic States, Russia (in the North Caucasus, Central region, Middle Volga regions), and also in Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.


Ecological factors significantly influence the extent of WWRMV severity, as it is a naturofocal disease persisting in weeds, in addition to leafhoppers their eggs which are laid on winter wheat leaves.

Economic significance.

Broad specialization of the WWRMV and its trans-ovarian transmission guarantee annual yield losses, especially in dry years when the activity of leafhoppers increases considerably.

Reference citations:

Agarkov V.A. 1960. Mosaic of winter wheat on the right bank of Ukraine. In: Sukhov K.S., ed. Virus diseases of agricultural plants and their control. Moscow: Ministry of Agriculture Publishing House, p.309-319. (in Russian)
Dubonosov T.S., Panarin I.V., Kanevcheva I.S. 1975. Viral diseases of cereals. Moscow: Kolos, 118 pp. (in Russian)
Gerasimov S.B. 1969. Viral diseases of grain crops in Volga region. In: Ivannikov V.F., ed. Transactions of Kuibyshev agricultural institute. Agronomy. Kuibyshev: Kuibyshev agricultural institute. V.23: 357-361. (in Russian)
Panarin I.V. 1985. Protection of cereals against viral diseases. Moscow: Rossel'khozizdat. 77 pp. (in Russian)
Panarin I.V. & Dubonosov T.S. 1974. Species composition of leafhoppers on winter wheat in Krasnodar Territory. In: Bobyr' A.D., ed. Viruses and viral diseases of plants. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, p. 195-199. (in Russian)
Petrukovich S.U. 1960. Mosaic of winter wheat. In: Sukhov K.S., ed. Virus diseases of agricultural plants and their control measures. Moscow: Ministry of Agriculture Publishing House, p.195-199. (in Russian)
Shaskolskaya N.D. 1960. Circulation of Winter Wheat Russian Mosaic Virus in Middle Volga region. In: Sukhov K.S., ed. Virus diseases of agricultural plants and their control. Moscow: Ministry of Agriculture Publishing House, p.326-328. (in Russian)
Tsyplenkov A.E. 1999. Prophylactic measures against viral diseases on cereals. AGRO-XXI 4: 16-17 (in Russian)
Vlasov Yu.I. & Larina E.I. 1982. Agricultural virology. Moscow: Kolos. 237 pp. (in Russian).
Zazhurilo V. & Gorlenko M. 1938. Wheat mosaic in Voronezh region. In: Dunin M.S., ed. Viral diseases of plants. Comp.2. Moscow-Leningrad: VASkHNIL, p. 133-138. (in Russian)
Zazhurilo V.K. & Sitnikova G.M. 1939. Mosaic of winter wheat. Doklady AN SSSR 9: 796-799. (in Russian)

© Tsyplenkov A.E.

The picture is from the publication of Zillinsky F.J. 1984. Guia para la Identificacion de Enfermedades en Cereales de Grano Pequeno. Mexico: Centro international de mejoramiento de maiz y Trigo international maize and Wheat improvement center, 141 p.

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