Distribution and severity of Sorosporium reilianum (Kuehn) McAlp.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist M.M. Levitin,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from map of scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. It consists of two layers characterizing the disease distribution and severity on corn.

Accuracy of the classifier:

Zone of the disease distribution is allocated by results of the analysis of open published materials (Nemlienko, 1957; Kalashnikov, Shapiro, 1962; Bzikov, Dyarikov, 1971; Grisenko, Dudka, 1976; Karatygin, 1986; Rabichuk et al., 1990; Chaika, Martinyuk, 2001). The area of distribution coincides with the disease severity zone.

Procedure of map drawing:

The blank map with outlines of the Head Smut area was scanned. The analysis of literature data demonstrates that the disease occurs more frequently in southern regions of European Russia and the Far East. The disease is significant in Kuban. region and Alania (Bzikov, Dyarikov, 1971), being insignificant in Stavropol Territory (Grisenko, Dudka, 1976). The disease spreading in Ukraine In 1980-s reached 21.6%, and yield losses reached 2-8% every year. In 1980-90-s the infection distribution on corn was 1.6-30%, and yield losses reached 35% (Chaika, Martinyuk, 2001). At the end of 1990-s the Head Smut was widely spread in Primorskii Territory of the Far . In commercial corn sowings the Head Smut distribution was 1.0-25%, yield losses reached 1.1-40.0% (Chaika, Martinyuk, 2001). Yield losses are 15-20% on fields where corn is grown during many years (Nemlienko, 1957), and they can reach 40% in some farms where unsteady hybrids are grown on the same field during several years (Rabichuk et al., 1990). Latent form of the disease is known, when the parasite develops quietly, causing depression of the plant growth and absence of ears (Kalashnikov, Shapiro, 1962). A correction of the area distribution configuration and the disease severity zone is carried out according to Koroleva. vector map (Koroleva et al., 2003) characterizing the territories of largest corn distribution.

Related references:

Bzikov M.A., Dyarikov Y.P. 1971. Head smut of corn and control of the disease. Kukuruza 10: 28-29 (in Russian).
Chaika A.K., Martynyuk T.D. 2001. Damage of smut diseases to corn in Primorskii Territory. Kukuruza i sorgo 5: 19-22 (in Russian).
Grisenko G.V., Dudka E.L. 1976. Ecological and geographical populations of Sorosporium reilianum (Kuehn) Mcalp. and their pathogenicity to corn. Mikologiya i fitopatologiya 10(5): 385-389 (in Russian).
Kalashnikov K.Ya., Shapiro I.D. 1962. Pests and diseases of corn. Leningrad: Sel.khozgiz, 189 p. (in Russian).
Karatygin I.V. 1986. Agents of smut on cereals. Leningrad: Nauka, 112 p. (in Russian).
Nemlienko F.E. 1957. Diseases of maize. Moscow: Sel.khozgiz. 230 p. (in Russian).
Rabichuk A.V., Matichuk V.G., Yazadgi P.P., Pomudyak I.G. 1990. Head smut of corn. Zashchita rastenii 4: 20 (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © M.M.Levitin (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map); M.M.Levitin (VIZR, photo).

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