Distribution and severity of Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Ung.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist M.M. Levitin,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

It is created on materials of maps of natural scale 1:33 000.000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. It consists of 3 layers characterizing the disease distribution and severity on maize.

Accuracy of the classifier:

The regions are referred to the zone of strong disease severity where the frequency of disease and loss of crop reach 30%. In the zone of low disease severity the frequency of disease lays within the limits of 10-20%, and losses of crop reach 10%.

Procedure of map drawing:

The zones of disease distribution and severity are allocated by results of the analysis of open published materials (Nemlienko, 1957; Kalashnikov, Shapiro, 1962; Bzikov et al., 1980; Karatygin, 1986; Chaika, Martynyuk, 2001). The disease occurs more frequently in regions with lack of moisture. The disease develops stronger in steppe part of Ukraine, in Moldova, in the south and south-east of Kazakhstan. Other allocated regions concern to the zone of low disease severity. The blank map with outlines of the Common Corn Smut area has been scanned. Registration and vectoring of raster map have been performed by standard tools of current GIS-technologies.

Related references:

Bzikov M.A., Misik N.A., Belaonova L.I. 1980. Role of precursors and fertilizers in decrease of yield losses from corn common smut. Kukuruza 6: 28 (in Russian).
Chaika A.K., Martynyuk T.D. 2001. Damage of smut diseases to corn in Primorskii Territory. Kukuruza i sorgo 5:19-22 (in Russian).
Kalashnikov K.Ya., Shapiro I.D. 1962. Pests and diseases of corn. Leningrad: Selkhozgiz, 189 p. (in Russian).
Karatygin I.V. 1986. Agents of smut on cereals. Leningrad: Nauka, 112 p. (in Russian).
Nemlienko F.E. 1957. Diseases of maize. Moscow: Sel.khozgiz. 230 p. (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © M.M. Levitin, M.I. Saulich (VIZR; map and description); A.N. Frolov (photo).

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