Area of distribution and damage of Aporia crataegi Linnaeus.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Biologists -I.Ya. Grichanov & E.I. Ovsyannikova
GIS-specialist - M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:




Accuracy of map:

Created based on information taken from the open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33,000,000 and 1:38,000,000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR" 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map consisting of 2 layers. Area and zone of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Within the limits of the general pest area located in the territory of the former USSR, the zone of low damage was allocated, where the pest exceeds economic threshold in untreated orchards in years of mass reproduction, i.e., 3-5 niduses per 1 tree or 1 nedus per 3 qub. m. of crone in the period before bud blossoming, and 10-15 % of the damaged leaves in the period after bud blossoming (Tanskii, 1985; Sazonov et. al., 1991). Conditions for moderate and high damage can develop in some forest-steppe areas of Ukraine and foothills of the Caucasus and Central Asia every 5-7 years (Victorov-Nabokov, 1954; Dobrovol.skii, 1959; Litvinov, 1962; Miralibekov, 1986; Daricheva, 1988). The pest was economically significant in industrial gardens until the middle 20th century. Due to an increased levels of agronomy and regular treatments against codling moth and other harmful lepidopterans it has lost its significance as an especially dangerous pest.

Method of map production:

The map was compiled according to results of the analysis of the open published materials and maps. The analysis of maps of Kurentsov A.I. (1970), L.vovskii L.V. (1984) and Lukhtanov V. & Lukhtanov A. (1994) has shown that the northern border of the area may be expanded to the border between tundra and forest-tundra regions (Barysheva et al., 1992), corresponding to the known data on the distribution of the species (Aristov, 1936; D.yakonov, 1949; Batiashvili, 1965; Babenko, 1982; Polyakov et al., 1984; Dobrovol.skii, 1959; Daricheva, 1988; Korshunov, 1962; L.vovskii, 1999; Nekrutenko, 1985; Miralibekov, 1986; Prokof.ev, 1987; Popov, 1999); deserts and semideserts of the northern Caspian area, Middle Asia and Kazakhstan were excluded from the area according to data on the species hygrophilous mode of life (Aristov, 1936; Vasil.ev & Lifshits, 1984). Some records of the species in the montane and plain tundra (Tatarinov, 2001; Korshunov, 2002) belong, obviously, to adventive individuals. References on the species findings in the Asian part of Russia and in trans-polar regions are scarce (Mezhennyi, 1956; Miralibekov, 1986; Daricheva, 1988; Korshunov, 2002; Savela, 2004; Berlov, 2004; Kosterin, 2000). There are no records of the species from Magadan Region, Chukotka and northeastern Yakutia. The zone of low harm was outlined according to works of Krasnyuk, 1928; Litvinov, 1962; Vasil.ev & Livshits, 1984; Miralibekov, 1986; Nekrutenko, 1974; Daricheva, 1988; L.vovskii, 1999; Polyakov et al., 1984; Korshunov, 2002, adapted to economically significant areas of fruit crops (Tochenov et al., 1984).

Reference citations:

Aristov M.T. 1936. Distribution and zones of damage of Aporia crataegi. In: Zelenukhin I.A., ed. Results of research works of VIZR for 1935. Leningrad: VASKHNIL, VIZR: 29. (in Russian).
Babenko Z.S. 1982. Phytophagous insects of fruit and berry plants in forest zone of Ob River Region. Tomsk: Tomsk University, 268 pp. (in Russian).
Barysheva Yu.A., Bruk S.I., Dmitriev A.V., Stroev K.V., Sutormin A.I., Shashko D.I., Yagust S.I. 1992. Zones of vegetation types. In: Geographical Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: Com. Geodesy and cartography of the USSR. 48 pp. (in Russian).
Batiashvili I.D. 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba, 336 pp. (in Russian).
Belyaev E.A. 1988. Pieridae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of agriculture in the Far East. Keys. Vladivostok: Biology and Soil Institute, DO AN SSSR: 217-262. (in Russian).
Berlov O. 2004. Color atlas and key to diurnal butterflies of Baikal Lake. 2nd ed. CD-ROM and Web-site. (in Russian)..
D.yakonov A.M. & Kozhanchikov I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii E.N. & Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR: 179-198 (in Russian).
Daricheva M.V. 1988. Fauna and ecology of Pieridae (Lepidoptera) of Turkmenistan. Izvestiya AN Turkm.SSR. Biol. nauk. Ashkhabad: Ylym, N 2: 61-68. (in Russian).
Dobrovol.skii B.V. 1959. Distribution of insect pests. Foci and zones of maximum harm. Moscow: Sovetskaya nauka, 216 p. (in Russian).
Kharin S.A., ed. 1984. Hand-book on pest control of agricultural crops. Alma-Ata: Kainar, 339 pp. (in Russian).
Korshunov Yu.P. 2002. Ropalocerous Lepidoptrans of northern Asia. Moscow: KMK, 424 pp. (in Russian).
Kosterin O.E. 2000. Biodiversity of fauna and flora of Siberia. . (in Russian)..
Krasnyuk P.I. 1928. Aporia crataegi L. Bulletins of Mleev Horticultural Esperiment Station. Mleev, V. 12, 44 pp. (in Russian).
Kurentsov A.I. 1970. Keys to Rhopalocera of the Far East of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka, 164 pp. (in Russian).
L.vovskii A.L. 1999. Pieridae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(2). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka: 233-242. (in Russian).
L.vovskii A.L. 1984. Map 206. In: Gorodkov, K.B., ed. Provisional atlas of the insects of the European part of USSR. Leningrad: Nauka, p. 46 (in Russian)..
Litvinov B.M. 1962. Aporia crataegi in orchards of collective farm "Shlyakh industrii" of Dergachev district and its control. In: Migulin A.A., ed. Questions of agricultural entomologii and zoology. Works of the Kharkov agricultural institute. Khar.kov, V. 36 (73): 96-106. (in Russian).
Lukhtanov V., Lukhtanov A. 1994. Die Tagfalter Nordwestasiens (Lepidoptera, Diurna). Herbipoliana. Buchreihezur zur lepidopterologie. Band 3. Herausgeber: Dr. Ulf Eitschberger, Marktleuthen, 440 p. (in German).
Mezhennyi A.A. 1956. Mass reproduction of Aporia crataegi L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Yakutia. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 35(4): 803-804. (in Russian).
Miralibekov N. 1986. Ecological and faunistic review of insects - pests of fruit crops in the Western Pamirs. In: Chikatunov V.I., ed. Fauna, ecology and zoogeography of Pamirs. Dushanbe: Donish: 50-55. (in Russian).
Nekrutenko Yu.P. 1974. Pieridae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai: 411-414. (in Russian).
Nekrutenko Yu.P. 1985. Bulavousye cheshuekrylye Kryma (opredelitel.) (Keys to Rhopalocera of the Crimea). Kiev: Naukova dumka, 151 p. (in Russian)..
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos: 6-45. (in Russian).
Popov S.G. 1999. Present state of butterfly populations of European threatened species in Transcarpathia (SW Ukraine). Report for VIII European Ecological Congress, Halkidiki - Greece, September 18-23, 1999. .
Prokof.ev M.A. 1987. Siberian orchards protection against pests. Moscow: Rossel.khozizdat, 239 pp. (in Russian).
Savela M. 2004. Aporia Huebner, Blackveins.
Sazonov A.P., Burov V.N., Sundukova N.E., Mokrousova E.P., Kolesova D.A., Zolotov L.A., Voinyak V.I., Pristavko V.P., Chernii A.M., Petrushova N.I., Medvedeva G.M., Matvievskii A.S., Maksimova V.I., Atanov N.M. & Gummel R.M. 1991.Technology of practical application of biologically active compounds in the IPM on fruit and vegetable cultures against pests (recommendations). Moscow: VASKHNIL, 32 p. (in Russian).
Tanskii V.I. 1985. Application of economic thresholds for the main pests of the primary agricultural crops (methodical instructions). Leningrad: VIZR, 27 pp. (In
Tatarinov A. 2001. Biodiversity of Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera, Diurna) of Maldy-Nyrd Range (Polar Ural, National park "Yugyd Va"). Syktyvkar: . (in Russian)..
Tochenov V.V., Markov V.F., Belyaeva L.I. et al. (Eds.). 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK, 260 pp. (in Russian)..
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos, 399 pp. (in Russian).
Viktorov-Nabokov O.V. 1954. To ecology of Aporia crataegi L. In Kiev Region. In: Kryshtal. A.F., ed. Third ecological conference (abstracts). V. 4. Kiev: Kiev University: 65-70. (in Russian)..

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004 © I.Ya.Grichanov, E.I.Ovsyannikova, & M.I.Saulich (VIZR; vector map, description); I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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