Archips podana Scop. - Large Fruit-tree Tortrix

Systematic position.

Class Insecta, order Lepidoptera, family Tortricidae, subfamily Tortricinae, tribe Archipini, genus Archips. Records of this species in Siberia and eastward belong to A. betulana Hbn. or to other species of the genus.


Cacoecia podana Scop., Archippus podanus Scop.

Biological group.

Polyphagous pest of fruit crops.

Morphology and biology.

Forewings red-brown or lilac-brown, with strongly bent anterior and external margins; therefore, the apical angle sharp and somewhat projecting (wingspan 20-26 mm). Females larger than males. Male wing with costal outfold in the form of small staple at wing base. Wing pattern clear. Wing in basal part with more or less dark pretornal field bearing a pretornal spot. Median band narrow at anterior wing margin, then gradually extending. Its proximal margin distinct, edged with white stripe; its distal margin gradually merging with ground color of wing. Subapical and outer marginal spots distinct. Hindwings gray at base and orange in distal half. Egg oval, light green. Caterpillars of 1st instar yellow-green. Caterpillars of 5th instar with olive or dark green dorsal side and with slightly lighter ventral side. Pupa red-brown, with red wing pads. Abdominal apex rounded, with emargination, having 4 apical and 2 lateral hook-like processes. The pupa is located within rolled (along main rib) leaves. Caterpillars of 3rd instar winter in silky cocoons on bark and in branch forks. Females lay eggs by groups (batches), 50-100 eggs in a batch, on the upper surface of leaves. Egg batches are positioned on leaves as roof-like oval light-green plaques. Hatching caterpillars skeletonize leaf for a few days (until the first molt), more often from below, then creeping away. After the first molt, they can damage apples, plaiting leaves.


The species inhabits Western Europe from Scotland and Scandinavia to the Balkan Mountains, and Asia Minor. It is recorded in Canada and USA. In the former USSR, it is distributed in the European part (everywhere from the White Sea coast and Kirov Region to the Caucasus), in the Volga river region, Transcaucasia, and Ural.


The species has one generation in middle belt of the European part, 2 generations in the south of Byelorussia and in steppe zone of Ukraine, and 3 generations in the Caucasus, Crimea, and Transcaucasia. After wintering, from the beginning of May, caterpillars begin their harming activity. Pupation of 1st generation caterpillars begins in June in places of their feeding. In a zone of one-two generations, moths fly from the beginning of June until the end of July (with peak at the end of June) and in August - September (2nd generation). In a zone of two full generations, the moths fly from the beginning of May until the last 3rd of June (with peak in the 1st third of June), and from the beginning of July until the beginning of September (with peak in the 1st third of August). The moths are active in twilight-nighttime; their maximum activity was marked in 2 hr after sunset, between 2130 p.m. and 0100 a.m. in Ukraine, between 2200 p.m. and 0200 a.m. in Byelorussia. Feeding of caterpillars lasts until October.

Economic significance.

Caterpillars are broadly polyphagous, damaging the majority of orchard plants and forest species of deciduous forests, in particular rosaceous, maples, willows, elms, oak, linden, walnut, pomegranate, etc. In conjunction with other leafroller species, it strongly harms fruit and berry cultures in the European part of the former USSR. It is marked on coniferous plants. Caterpillars penetrate into blossoming buds, then feed within plaited by silk threads rilled or turned leaves at shoot tips. They damage also flower buds, flowers, and ovaries, plaiting them to leaves and gnawing them around the outside. The species fraction can reach 17% in total number of leafroller caterpillars. Control measures. Agronomical ones include cutting of old and diseased branches. Biological measures include application of biological preparations. Chemical ones are insecticide treatments in spring before blossoming of trees (during the phase of red buds, when the average air temperature reaches 10°C) for destruction of overwintered caterpillars in the centers populated with the pest. Monitoring is possible by use of sex pheromone traps.

Reference citations:

Kostyuk, Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev, V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 261-320 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov, V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov, V.I., ed. Insects and mites . pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka, p. 51-234 (in Russian).
Prokof.ev, M.A. 1987. Siberian orchards protection against pests. Moscow: Rossel.khozizdat, 239 p. (in Russian).
Vasil.ev, V.P. & Livshits, I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (in Russian).

© Ovsyannikova E.I., Grichanov I.Ya.

Photo © Grichanov I.Ya. (VIZR)

Web design —
Kelnik studios