Area of distribution and damage of Argyrotaenia ljungiana (Thunberg)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I.Ovsyannikova & I.Ya.Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Created using open published literature and maps of scale 1: 17 000 000 -1: 40 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map. Area is shown by polygons (main distribution) and by dots (sporadic distribution). Zone of damage is shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

Zone of low damage only is allocated within the limits of general area. Here the pest has economic significance with the following economic thresholds that are common for leaf damaging tortricids: 3-5 egg batches per tree before buds blossoming; 0.5-3 caterpillars per running meter of branch or 10-15% damaged leaves before blossoming of fruits and berries (Dolzhenko, 2004). A. ljungiana is sometimes able to considerably exceed these thresholds in some orchards (Vinogradov, 1965; Kuznetsov, 1994), but the pest is counted together with all early spring orchard pests; treatments against bud pests and Codling Moth also reduce the A. ljungiana population density.

Method of map production:

The map was compiled based on the analysis of open published materials and the Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St.Petersburg, Russia. The A. ljungiana area was outlined according to original and reference data on the species distribution (Durnovo, 1931; D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov, 1949; Arnol.di, 1960; Kostyuk, 1974, 1980; Ivanova et al., 1984; Kuznetsov, 1967; 1994; 2001; Dubatolov, 2003). V.I.Kuznetsov (1994, 2001) assumes that northern border of the species area reaches tundra; that proves by its distribution in Finland (Kullberg et al., 2001), but the original data from the northern parts of the former USSR are absent. Treatment of the available literature and materials of the Collection of the Zoological Institute allows to outline the northern and eastern borders of the area in the European part of the former USSR from its border with Finland through Petrozavodsk along eastern borders of the Leningrad and Novgorod Regions to Yaroslavl, further along Volga river to Kalmykia. In the Caucasus, the species is known everywhere after Kuznetsov (1994, 2001), Ivanova et al. (1986), Kobakhidze (1957), etc. Within the limits of Central Asia, the species is found in Southern Kazakhstan, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan and Kirghizia (D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov, 1949; Kuznetsov, 1994; Dubatolov, 2003). The deserted lands of the Northern Caspian Depression and Central Asia, the high mountains of the Caucasus and Central Asia are excluded from the area. We have not found specified records from Cis-Urals and Western Siberia. So, dots of sporadic distribution show finds of the species in Kemerovo, Irkutsk, Amur Regions, and in Khabarovsk Territory (Kuznetsov, 1967, 1973, 2001; Kostyuk, 1980). The Caucasus and Central Asia are included in the zone of low damage that coincides with the areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops (Kostyuk, 1974; Kuznetsov, 1994; etc.), which are defined after Tochenov et al. (1984) in the Caucasus and after Terekhina & Kalibernova (2004) in Central Asia.

Reference citations:

Arnol.di, L.V., ed. 1960. Insect pests of maize in the USSR: handbook. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, 228 p. (in Russian).
Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St.Petersburg, Russia.
D.yakonov, A.M. & Kozhanchikov, I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii, E.N. & Shtakelberg, A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR: 179-198 (in Russian).
Dubatolov, V.V. 2003. Tortricoidea. Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum.
Durnovo, E.P. 1935. Leafrollers, pests of Italian hemp and kenaf. Zashchita rastenii 5: 132-134 (in Russian).
Dzhashi, V.S. 1954. Grape Tortrix as a pest of subtropical cultures. In: Gamkrelidze, I.D., ed. Bulletin of VNII of tea and subtropical cultures. Vol. 4. Makharadze: VNIIChISK, p. 162-173 (in Russian).
Dzhashi, V.S. 1968. Leafrollers as pests of tea and their control. In: Dzhakeli, V., ed. Subtropical cultures. Vol. 2(94). Makharadze-Anaseuli: VNIIChISK, p. 29-51 (in Russian).
Dzhashi, V.S. & Demetladze, T.Ya. 1967. Materials on the anatomic, physiological and biochemical changes in tea leaves, caused by Grape Tortrix caterpillars. In: Dzhakeli, V., ed. Subtropical cultures. Vol. 2(88). Makharadze-Anaseuli: VNIIChISK, p. 34-40 (in Russian).
Esartiya, G.K. 2002. To the fauna of leafrollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) of the tribes Cnephasiini and Archipini of Lagodekhi nature reserve (Georgia). In: Anon., ed. XII congress of Russian Entomological Society (19-24 August 2002). Abstracts. Aint-Petersburg: REO, p. 34-35(in Russian).
Ivanova, T.V., Myttus, E.R., Pralya, I.I. 1984. Results of testing synthetic pheromones for monitoring of fruit leafrollers in Krasnodar Territory. In: Mottus E.R., Shumakov E.M., eds. Pheromones for leafrollers . pests of agriculture and forestry: Materials of All-Union conference, Kyaeriku, 19-21 Nov. 1984, V.1. Tartu: TGU, p. 49-65 (in Russian).
Khadzhibeili, Z.K. 1956. To study of leafrollers damaging citrus plants in Georgia. In: Anon., ed. Proc. of Plant Protection Inst. Vol. 11. Tbilisi: AN Gruz SSR, p. 139-155 (in Georgian, with Russian summary).
Kobakhidze, D.N. 1957. Harmful entomofauna in agricultural crops of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz. SSR, 274 p. (in Russian).
Kostyuk, Yu.A. 1966. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Crimea. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 45(8): 1175-1186 (in Russian).
Kostyuk, Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev, V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 261-320 (in Russian).
Kostyuk, Yu.A. 1980. Tortricidae. Iss. 10. Tortricinae. In: Dolin V.G., ed. Fauna of Ukraine, V. 15. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 424 p. (in Ukrainian).
Kullberg, J., Albrecht, A., Kaila, L.,Varis, V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki) 6(2): 1-190.
Kuznetsov, V.I. 1967. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Amur-Zeya region and their ecology. In: Tryapitsyn, V.A., ed. Harmful and useful insects of the Far East of the USSR. Proc. ZIN, Leningrad: Nauka, p. 5-73 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov, V.I. 1973. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of the South of the Far East and their seasonal cycles. In: Kuznetsov, V.I., ed. Lepidoptera of the fauna of the USSR and adjacent countries (Proc. VEO, v. 56). Leningrad: Nauka, p. 44-161 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov, V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov, V.I., ed. Insects and mites . pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka, p. 51-234 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov, V.I. 2001. Family Tortricidae (Olethreutidae). In: Ler, P.A., ed. Keys to the insects if the Russian Far East. V. 5(3). Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Vladivostok: Dal.nauka, p. 11-472 (in Russian).
Milyanovskii, E.S. 1955. Adaptability of local insect species to introduced subtropical plants under conditions of damp subtropics of the Black Sea coast. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 34(1): 101-111 (in Russian).
Uskov, M.V. 2006. Lepidoptera of Vladimir Region. Iss. 7. Fauna and ecology of Lepidoptera. National park "Meshchera" (after results in 2005). Vladimir & Gus.-Khrustal.nyi: National park "Meshchera", 83 p. (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2006 © E.I.Ovsyannikova, I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map); I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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