Area of distribution and damage of Cacoecia xylosteana L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I. Ovsyannikova & I.Ya. Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The area is presented within the area of industrial cultivation of fruits in the territory of the former USSR. Within the limits of the general area only a zone of low damage was allocated. Here the pest has economic significance with the following economic thresholds: 3-5 egg-batches per tree before buds blossom; 0.5-3 caterpillars per running meter of branch or 10-15% damaged leaves before blossoming of fruits and berries (Dolzhenko, 2004). A. xylosteana is sometimes able to considerably exceed this threshold in some orchards according to the following sources: Savkovskii (1974), Malakhova (1977), Kostyuk (1980); but the pest is mainly counted together with all early spring orchard pests. Treatments against bud pests and Codling Moth also reduce the A. xylosteana population density.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. The species area in the European part of the former USSR was outlined along the northern border of industrial cultivation of fruits from St. Petersburg toward South Ural according to the following reference data on the species distribution: Kuznetsov & Martynova (1954), Minder (1959), Fal.kovich (1962), Savkovskii (1974), Kostyuk (1974, 1980), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Zubov (1986), Khrustaleva & Gokhman (1986), Ermolaev (1988), Kuznetsov (1994; in Transcaucasia and Turkmenistan according to Kuznetsov (1954, 1960, 1994); in northwestern Kazakhstan according to Kuznetsov & Martynova (1954). High mountains of the Caucasus and desert lands of the Caspian Depression were excluded from the area. Data on the species distribution in Siberia have not been found. It is distributed in the Amur Region, in the south of Primorskii Territory, on Sakhalin, Kuril Islands (Kunashir) according to: Malakhova (1977), Ermolaev (1988), Kuznetsov (1994, 2001). The zone of low damage was determined according to Malakhova (1977), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984) and Ermolaev (1988) as well as other references listed below. Its northern border in the European part of the former USSR coincides with the northern border of the forest-steppe zone (Barysheva et al., 1992). The zone of low damage was adjusted in the North Caucasus and in the south of Primorskii Territory along areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops that were outlined according to Tochenov (1984).

Reference citations:

Barysheva Yu.A., Bruk S.I., Dmitriev A.V., Stroev K.V., Sutormin A.I., Shashko D.I., Yagust S.I. 1992. Zones of soil-vegetation types. Geographical Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: Com. Geodesy and cartography of the USSR. 48 p. (In Russian)
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 363 p. (In Russian)
Egorov I.N., Solozhenikina T.N. 1963. Variegated Golden Tortrix - pest of oak forest in Voronezh Region. In: Ivanov S.Z., ed. Materials of 1st inter-university conference (on forestry, wood industry and branch economy). Voronezh: VGU. 24-25 p. (In Russian)
Ermolaev V.P. 1988. Tortricidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of agriculture in the Far East. Keys. Vladivostok: Biology and Soil Institute, DO AN SSSR. 65-99 p. (In Russian)
Fal.kovich M.I. 1962. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Leningrad Region. In: Stackelberg A.A., ed. Fauna of Leningrad Region and Karelia. Fauna Leningradskoi oblasti i Karelii. Materials on invertebrate fauna. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 48-80 p. (In Russian)
Khrustaleva V.A., Gokhman V.E. 1986. Results of test of pheromones of some leafroller species in the Botanical garden of the Moscow State University. In: Mottus E.R., Shumakov E.M., eds. Pheromones for leafrollers - pests of agriculture and forestry: Materials of All-Union conference; Kyaeriku: 19-21 Nov. 1984. V. 2. Tartu: TGU. 294-295 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 261-320 p. (In Russian)
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1980. Tortricidae. Issue 10. Tortricinae. In: Dolin V.G., ed. Fauna of Ukraine. V. 15. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 424 p. (In Ukrainian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1954. Lepidoptera of Western Kopet-Dag, their ecology and economic significance. PhD Thesis. Leningrad: LGU. 16 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1960. Materials on fauna and biology of Lepidoptera of West Kopet-Dag. In: Kryzhanovskii O.L., ed. Fauna and ecology of insects of Turkmenistan. Scientific results of expedition 1951-53 by ZIN AN SSSR and IZ AN TurkmSSR in western Turkmenistan. V. 1. Proceedings of ZIN AN SSSR. V. 37. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 11-94 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 51-234 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 2001. Family Tortricidae (Olethreutidae). In: Ler P.A., ed. Keys to the insects if the Russian Far East. V. 5(3). Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Vladivostok: Dal.nauka. 11-472 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I., Martynova E.F. 1954. List of Lepidoptera of Middle Ural River Basin. In: Pavlovskii E.N., ed. Proceedings of ZIN RAS. V. 16. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 321-350 p. (In Russian)
Litvinova A.N. 1967. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) - forestry pests in central Byelorussia. In: Zaitseva T.Z., ed. Fauna and ecology of insects of Byelorussia. Minsk: AN Bel. SSR. 64-81 p. (In Russian)
Malakhova V.P. 1977. To biology of Archips xylosteana L. in conditions of the south of Primorskii Territory. In: Slabko Yu.I., ed. Plant Protection in agriculture and forestry of the Far East. Collection of scientific works. V. 48. Ussuriisk: Primorskii SKHI. 14-21 p. (In Russian)
Minder I.F. 1959. Leafrollers damaging fruit crops in Oka bottomland. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 38(1): 98-110. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)
Zubov A.P. 1986. Activity synthetic pheromones for leafrollers living in oak groves. In: Mottus E.R., Shumakov E.M., eds. Pheromones for leafrollers - pests of agriculture and forestry: Materials of All-Union conference, V. 2; 1984 Nov 19-21; Kyaeriku. Tartu: TGU. 178-179 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map), M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map,); I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

Web design —
Kelnik studios