Area of distribution and damage of the European Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus pygmaeus L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist - A.N. Frolov
GIS-specialist - M.I. Saulich

Date of creation:




Accuracy of map:

Map was created using information from published literature and maps of scale 1:,33,000,000-80,000,000.


.Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR., 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map consisting of 4 layers. Distribution area and zones of high, moderate, and low damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Within the limits of the natural habitat, an area of high harm was designated, in which the Stem Sawfly periodically though seriously infests crops (20-50% of stems are infested during the insect outbreaks, with larval population densities 5 to 40 or more per 1 sq.m. on no less than half of the sown area), i.e., adult C. pygmaeus density exceeds threshold (40-50 specimens per 100 net sweeps or 4 specimen per 1 sq.m.) on numerous occasions. Area of moderate harm includes regions where insect outbreaks are also common, but only 5 to 20% of stems are damaged, and the density of adults reaches or exceeds the threshold (40-50 specimens per 100 net sweeps or 4 specimens per 1 sq.m.). In the area of low harm, the population density of C. pygmaeus rarely reaches the threshold (40-50 specimens per 100 net sweeps or 4 specimens per 1 sq.m.), and hence the level of crop infestation usually does not surpass 5%.

Mapping procedure:

The areas of distribution and harm of the European Wheat Stem Sawfly were mapped using published data (Anonym, 1973, 1989, 1997, 1999; Arnol'di et al., 1949; Badulin, 1961; Belyaev, 1974; Golovko, 1975; Gussakovskii, 1935; Kazdokhova, 1975; Konstantinova, 1975; Narchuk & Tryapitsyn, 1981; Paranuk, 1975; Pavlov, 1983; Sakharov, 1947; Shchegolev, 1931, 1960; Stroganova, 1987; Vinogradova, 1969, 1975; Vinogradova, Doronina, 1966; Zhasanov, 1991) and the cartographical materials of D.T. Ries (1926) (cit. ex V.N.Shchegolev, 1931) and M. Savela (1997-2004). Map of general distribution made by D.T. Ries (1926) needs substantial correction. The northern border (according to I.M.Belyaev, 1974) crosses the Leningrad, Kirov, Perm, and Sverdlovsk Regions. Consequently, the map of Markku Savela (1997-2004) better reflects species distribution in the north. Also, the northern border has been slightly shifted based on maps of wheat sowings. Nowadays, the species occurs in the plains of Western Siberia (Vasilenko, 2003), in forest (rarely), forest-steppe, and steppe zones (common), and in Kazakhstan (not only in the northwest, but in the southeast also, e.g., in the Almaty Region, based on data from the Plant Protection Service) (Vinogradova, 1969). These new findings are in contrast to the older materials of Ries (1926) and Gussakovskii (1935). At the same time, C. pygmaeus is not found in Eastern Siberia, even in Transbaikalia (Verzhutskii, 1966, 1973), where closely related C. cinctus Norton has been recorded near Baikal, in the Amur Region, and in the Russian Far East (Ivie, Zinovjev, 1996). Therefore, the boundary of C. pygmaeus distribution in Kazakhstan runs in accordance to Markku Savela (1997-2004). In Siberia, we assigned the border, which most likely goes along Enisei and the foothills of Altai, along forest-steppe frontier (Barysheva et al., 1992). The southern border of C. pygmaeus distribution lies in accordance with Markku Savela (1997-2004), with the exception of Pamirs, where we kept Ries's (1926) interpretation of the insect range. Territories of Rostov Region, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, Adygea, Kalmykia, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Dagestan are included in the areas of high and moderate harm; as well as Volgograd, Saratov, Samara, Ul'yanovsk, Orenburg Regions, Bashkortostan, Chuvashia and Tatarstan; Kharkiv, Poltava, Donetsk, Odessa, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson, Luhansk, Mykolayiv Regions and Crimea in Ukraine; Ural and Aktiubinsk Regions in Kazakhstan (see the list of literature below). The territory of low harm includes Moldova, Zakarpat'ska, and Ternopil' Regions in Ukraine, Belgorod Region in Russia, and southern districts of the Ural and Aktiubinsk Regions in Kazakhstan. The zones of harm were desognated according to the map of cereal crops, especially winter wheat (Ukraine, North Caucasus) and spring wheat (Kazakhstan and Volga region).

Sources of data:

Anonymous. 1973. Pests and diseases of agricultural plants in Crimea (forecast of their appearance in 1973 and their control). Simferopol: Tavriya. 88 p. (In Russian).
Anonymous. 1999. Review of distribution of pests and diseases of agricultural crops in 1999 and forecast of their appearance in Saratov Region in 2000. Saratov: MSKh i prod. Rossii. 51 p. (In Russian).
Anonymous. 1989. The forecast of distribution of main pests, diseases, and weeds of agricultural crops and recommendations on their control in farms of Ukrainian SSR in 1989. Kiev: Gos. agroprom. komitet Ukrainskoi SSR, 157 p. (In Russian).
Anonymous. 1997. The forecast of appearance and distribution of pests, diseases of agricultural crops, weeds, quarantine objects on the territory of Rostov Region in 1997 and recommended measures of their control. Rostov-na-Donu: MSKh i prod. Rossii, 128 p. (In Russian).
Arnol'di L.V., Borkhsenius N.S., et al., eds. 1949. Harmful animals of Middle Asia (reference book). Moscow - Leningrad: AN SSSR. 404 p. (In Russian).
Belyaev, I.M. 1974. Pests of grain crops. Moscow: Kolos. 284 p. (in Russian).
Golovko, S.F. 1975. Wheat stem sawflies in Stavropol Territory. In: Voprosy selektsii ozimoi pshenitsy na ustoichivost' k khlebnym pilil'shchikam. Trudy Stavropol' Instituta sel'skogo khozyaistva, 21, Stavropol'. P. 67-70. (In Russian).
Gussakovskii, V.V. 1935. Fauna of the USSR. Hymenoptera. V. 2. Issue 1. Horntails and sawflies, part 1. Moscow & Leningrad: Zoologicheskii Institut AN SSSR. P. 118-120 (In Russian).
Ivie, M.A. & Zinovjev, A. 1996. Discovery of the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Asia, with the proposal of a new synonymy. Can. Entomol. 128: 347-348.
Kazdokhova, L.Kh. 1975. Distribution and harmfulness of wheat stem sawfly in Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Republic during 1961-1972. In: Voprosy selektsii ozimoi pshenitsy na ustoichivost' k khlebnym pilil'shchikam. Trudy Stavropol' Instituta sel'skogo khozyaistva, 21, Stavropol'. P. 83-86. (In Russian).
Konstantinova A.D., 1975. Wheat stem sawflies and their agricultural control in Volga region. In: Voprosy selektsii ozimoi pshenitsy na ustoichivost' k khlebnym pilil'shchikam. Trudy Stavropol' Instituta sel'skogo khozyaistva, 21, Stavropol'. P. 87-92. (In Russian).
Muche H. 1981. Die Cephidae der Erde. Dtsch. Entomol. Zschrft. Neue Folfe Band 28, Heft 4-5. S.239-295. (In German).
Narchuk, E.P. & Tryapitsyn, V.A., eds. 1981. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 4. Hymenoptera and Diptera. Leningrad: Nauka, 221 p. (in Russian).
Paranuk, Kh.G. 1975. Wheat stem sawfly as dangerous pest of wheat in Adygea Autonomous Region. In: Voprosy selektsii ozimoi pshenitsy na ustoichivost' k khlebnym pilil'shchikam. Trudy Stavropol' Instituta sel'skogo khozyaistva, 21, Stavropol'. P. 75-82. (In Russian).
Pavlov, I.F. 1983. Field crops protection from pests. Moscow: Rossel'khozizdat, 224 p. (in Russian).
Sakharov N.L. 1947. Harmful insects of lower Volga area. Saratov: OGIZ, 423 p. (In Russian).
Savela, M. 1997-2004. Cephus pygmaeus L. .
Shchegolev, V. 1931. Wheat stem sawflies (biology, ecology, control). Out of works of entomological department of the North Caucasus Regional Agricultural Experiment Station. 2nd Edition. Moscow & Leningrad: Sel'kolkhozgiz. 112 p. (In Russian).
Shchegolev, V.N., ed. 1960. Agricultural Entomology. Leningrad & Moscow: Sel'khozgiz. 448 p. (in Russian).
Stroganova, V.K. 1987. Fauna of stem sawflies (Hymenoptera, Cephidae) of western Siberia. In: Ekologiya i geografiya chlenistonogikh Sibiri. Novosibirsk: Sibirskoye otdeleniye izdat. Nauka. P. 104-106. (In Russian).
Tanskii, V.N. & Dormidontova, G.N. 1987. Biological peculiarities of harmfulness for wheat stem sawfly Cephus pygmaeus L. (Hymenoptera, Cephidae). Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 66 (4). P. 715-726. (In Russian).
Vasil'ev, V.P.ed. 1973. The pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Kiev: Urozhai. 606 p. (in Russian).
Vasilenko, S.V. 2003. Cephidae. Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum.
Verzhutskii, B.N. 1966. Sawflies of Baikal Region. Moscow: Nauka. 163 p. (In Russian).
Verzhutskii, B.N. 1973. Keys for determination of Siberian and the Far Eastern horntail and sawfly larvae. Moscow: Nauka. 140 p. (In Russian).
Vinogradova, N.M. 1975. Distribution and harmfulness of wheat stem sawflies in the USSR. In: Voprosy selektsii ozimoi pshenitsy na ustoichivost' k khlebnym pilil'shchikam. Trudy Stavropol' Instituta sel'skogo khozyaistva, 21, Stavropol'. P. 54-59. (In Russian).
Vinogradova, N.M. 1969. Wheat stem sawflies. Proceedings of VIZR, Issue 34, "Rasprostranenie vreditelei i boleznei sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur v SSSR v 1969 godu". P. 136-139. (In Russian).
Vinogradova, N.M. & Doronina, G.M. 1966. Wheat stem sawflies. Proceedings of VIZR, Issue 28 "Rasprostranenie vreditelei i boleznei sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur v 1965 godu". P. 110-112. (In Russian).
Zhasanov, F.K. 1988. European wheat stem sawfly and its harmfulness in West Kazakhstan. In: Zashchita sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur pri intensivnykh tekhnologiyakh vozdelyvaniya. Sbornik nauchn. trudov. Alma-Ata. P. 162-175. (In Russian).
Zhasanov, F.K. 1991. European wheat stem sawfly, Cephus pygmaeus L. (Hymenoptera, Cephidae) in West Kazakhstan and scientific backgrounds for its control. Abstract of Candidate Thesis. Agric. Sci., Alma-Ata: Kazakh Institut sel'skogo khozyaistva, 25 p. (In Russian)

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