Area of distribution and damage of Choreutis pariana Cl.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I.Ovsyannikova & I.Ya.Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open published literature and map of scale 1: 33 000 000ю


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map from 3 layers. Area is shown by polygons (main distribution). Zone of damage is shown by polygons and by dots (sporadic damage).

Accuracy of the classifier:

The zone of low damage is allocated within the general area of Ch. pariana. Economic threshold has been proposed for the pest; i.e., 8 and more specimens/100 leaves or 4-6 % of the damaged leaf rosettes during 2-3 weeks after flowering and later (Dolzhenko, 2004). Under favorable weather conditions in some years, leaves of some fruit crops are damaged by 65% (Kobashinskaite, 1971), sometimes by 90% (Kuznetsov, 1994); treatments against the Codling Moth reduce also the Ch. pariana population density.

Method of map production:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published materials. The Apple Leaf Skeletonizer area is outlined according to reference data on the species distribution (D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov, 1949; Vorzheva, 1958; Matesova et al., 1962; Rebeza, 1972; Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1973, 1981; Meleshko, 1984; Dubatolov, 2000; etc.). Reference books report on the species distribution in all European part of the USSR (except for the north). The northern border in the European part passes from border of Finland and Karelian Isthmus (Kullberg et al., 2001) through Leningrad, Pskov, Moscow, Vladimir Regions to Southern Ural (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1973). The species is still not recorded in republics of Central Asia. Foothills in the south of southern and southeastern Kazakhstan are included after Matesova et al. (1962), D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov (1949). The south of Western and Eastern Siberia is included into the area after Vorzheva (1957), Danilevskii & Kuznetsov (1973), Lopatina (1981), Prokof.ev (1987), Kuznetsov (1994), Dubatolov (2000). In the Far East, the species is known in Primorskii Territory, Sakhalin and Kuriles (Kunashir Is.) (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1973; Ponomarenko, 1999). The zone of low damage includes the species area within the limits of zone of industrial cultivation of apple trees in the European part, in the Caucasus and Transcaucasia (except high mountains), and in foothill zone of southern Kazakhstan, embracing also places of apple tree growing in Irkutsk and Chita Regions and in Buryatiya (according with vector map compiled by Terekhina & Kalibernova (2004).

Reference citations:

D.yakonov A.M. & Kozhanchikov I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii E.N. & Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR: 179-198 (in Russian).
Danilevskii A.S. & Kuznetsov V.I. 1973. Review of the genus Hemerophila Hb. (Lepidoptera, Glyphipterygidae) of the USSR fauna. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Lepidoptera of the fauna of the USSR and adjacent countries (Proc. VEO, v. 56). Leningrad: Nauka, p. 8-17 (in Russian).
Danilevskii A.S. & Kuznetsov V.I. 1981. Choreutidae. In: Medvedev G.S., ed. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. V. 4(2). Moscow & Leningrad: Nauka, p. 103-137 (in Russian).
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St.Petersburg: VIZR, 363 p. (in Russian).
Dubatolov V.V. 2000. Choreutidae - Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum. Novosibirsk: Siberian Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Gershenzon Z.S. 1974. Family Glyphipterygidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 256-275 (in Russian).
Goguadze M.N. 1968. Simaethis pariana Cl. In: Kanchaveli L.A., ed. Materials of session of the Transcaucasian board for coordination of research works on plant protection.Tbilisi: GruzNIIZR, p. 241-243 (in Russian).
Kobashinskaite M. 1971. Survival of Carpocapsa pomonella L. and Simaethis pariana Cl. after winter 1968/69 in Lithuanian SSR. In: Maavara V.Yu., ed. Cold-resistance of insects and mites. Materials of symposium. Tartu: IZIB AN EstSSR, p. 34-35 (in Russian).
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L. & Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki), 6(2): 1-190.
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Choreutidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites . pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka, p. 239-243 (in Russian).
Lopatina V.V. 1981. Apple Leaf Skeletonizer. Zashchita rastenii 4: 30 (in Russian).
Matesova G.Ya., Mityaev I.D. & Yukhnevich L.A. 1962. Review of insects damaging fruit and berry cultures and grapevine in Southwest Kazakhstan. In: Marikovskii P.I., ed. Materials on study of insects of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: AN Kaz.SSR, p. 3-46 (in Russian).
Meleshko R.P. 1975. Harmfulness of Hemerophila pariana Sl. and resistance of apple varieties. In: Ambrosov A.L., ed. Materials of republican conference on plant protection. Minsk: BelNIIZR, p. 117-119 (in Russian).
Meleshko R.P. 1984. About harmfulness of Apple Leaf Skeletonizer in northeast of Belarus. In: Anon., ed. Problems of regional ecology of animals in zoological disciplines of pedagogical high schools. Abstracts. 3rd All-Union conference of zoologists of pedagogical high schools. Part 2. Vitebsk: Gos. ped. in-t, p. 273-274 (in Russian).
Ponomarenko M.G. 2001. Choreutidae. In: Ler P.A., ed. Keys to the insects of the Russian Far East. V. 5(4). Vladivostok: Dal.nauka, p. 74-105 (in Russian).
Prokof.ev M.A. 1987. Siberian orchards protection against pests. Moscow: Rossel.khozizdat, 239 p. (in Russian).
Rebeza A.G. 1972. Biology of Simaethis pariana L. (Lepidoptera, Glyphipterygidae) In: Rud. G.Ya., ed. News in plant protection from pests and diseases. Proc. Kishinev agr. inst. 88: 80-85 (in Russian).
Terekhina N.V., Kalibernova N.M. The Area of Apple tree domestic (Malus domestica Borkh.).2004.
Tereshchenko V.G. 1976. Apple Leaf Skeletonizer. Zashchita rastenii 5: 61 (in Russian).
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits, I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos, 399 p. (in Russian).
Vorzheva L.V. 1958. To biology and harming activity of some little-known Microlepidoptera . pests of fruiters in Cis-Baikalia. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 37(4): 820-829 (in Russian).
Zagainyi S.A. 1955. To a question on speciation of Simaethis nemorana. Agorobiologiya 4: 140-142 (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2006 © E.I.Ovsyannikova, I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map).

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