Area of distribution and damage of Choristoneura diversana Hbn.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I.Ovsyannikova & I.Ya.Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 17 000 000 and 1:33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map consisting of 2 layers. Area and zone of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

Zone of low damage only is allocated within the limits of general area. Here the pest has economic significance. The species biology and ecology have many similarities with those in Hedya nubiferana Hw.; therefore, we propose the use economic threshold of harmfulness for the latter species; the threshold is making 5-8% damaged buds or 3 caterpillars per running meter before flowering of fruit cultures (during the phase of green tops); 15 caterpillars per 100 rosettes during the phase of red buds (Dolzhenko, 2004). C. diversana is sometimes able to exceed considerably this threshold in some orchards according to Batasheva (1981) and Kuznetsov (1994), but the pest is mainly counted together with other early-spring orchard pests. Treatments against bud pests and Codling Moth also reduce the C. diversana population density.

Method of map production:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published materials. The C. diversana area is outlined according to original and reference data on the species distribution (Kobakhidze, 1957; Minder, 1959; Kuznetsov, 1967, 1973, 1994, 2001; Kostyuk, 1974, 1980; Batasheva, 1981; Ivanova et al., 1984; Charushina, Shernin, 1994; Emel.yanov et al., 2002; Osyannikova, 2003; i dr.). In the European part the species occurs from Leningrad and Kirov Regions in the North to the Urals in the East and to the Caucasus in the South. The northern border of the area in the European part is drawn along northern border of zone of mixed deciduous-fir forests (Chikov et al., 1976). The species has not been recorded from Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. It is sporadically distributed in the Southern Siberia (Minusinsk, Irkutsk) after Kuznetsov (1973) and Kostyuk (1980). In the Far East it is known from Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories, Amur and Sakhalin Regions, and Kuriles (Dubatolov, 2000; Kuznetsov, 1967, 2001). The area is outlined here according with sporadic records along northern border of zone of deciduous and mixed forests (Chikov et al., 1976). Note of Kuznetsov (1994) about noticeable harmfulness of the species in orchards of "the south of the European part" is not confirmed by the practical literature of last decades. The zone of low damage coincides with the areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops in forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part and the Far East (Minder, 1959; Kostyuk, 1974; Batasheva, 1981; Vasil.ev, Livshits, 1984; Bykhovets et al., 1986; Kuznetsov, 1994; Emel.yanov et al., 2002; etc.), which are determined after Tochenov et al. (1984). Registration and vectorization of raster map are executed by means of GIS-technologies.

Reference citations:

Batasheva, Z.I. 1981. Leafrollers on raspberry. Zashchita rastenii 6: 41 (in Russian).
Bykhovets, A.I., Akhrem, A.A., Lakhvich, F.A. 1986. Biologicheskaya aktivnost. sinteticheskikh polovykh feromonov listovertok. In: Mottus E.R., Shumakov E.M., eds. Pheromones for leafrollers - pests of agriculture and forestry: Materials of All-Union conference, Kyaeriku, 19-21 Nov. 1984, V.1. Tartu: TGU, p. 26-48 (in Russian).
Charushina, A.N., Shernin, A.I. 1974. Order Lepidoptera. In: Shernin, A.I., ed. Fauna of the Kirov Region, V. 2. Kirov: Kirov GPI: 351-477 (in Russian).
Chikov P.S., ed. 1976. Atlas of areas and resources of herbs of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK, 340 p. (in Russian).
Dolzhenko, V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St.Petersburg: VIZR, 363 p. (in Russian).
Dubatolov V.V. 2000. Tortricidae - Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum. Novosibirsk: Siberian Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, .
Emel.yanov, V.A., Nikolaeva, Z.V., Pavlov, I.N., Ovsyannikova, E.I. 2002. Study of a degree of synchronism in flight of leafroller moths (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) at their pheromone monitoring in apple orchards of Northwest of Russia. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 81(2): 281-291 (in Russian).
Ivanova, T.V., Myttus, E.R., Pralya, I.I. Results of testing synthetic pheromones for monitoring of fruit leafrollers in Krasnodar Territory. In: Mottus E.R., Shumakov E.M., eds. Pheromones for leafrollers - pests of agriculture and forestry: Materials of All-Union conference, Kyaeriku, 19-21 Nov. 1984, V.1. Tartu: TGU, p. 49-65 (in Russian).
Kobakhidze, D.N. 1957. Harmful entomofauna in agricultural crops of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz. SSR, 274 p. (in Russian).
Kostyuk, Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev, V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 261-320 (in Russian).
Kostyuk, Yu.A. 1980. Tortricidae. Iss. 10. Tortricinae. In: Dolin V.G., ed. Fauna of Ukraine, V. 15. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 424 p. (in Ukrainian).
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L.,Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki) 6(2): 1-190.
Kuznetsov, V.I. 1967. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Amur-Zeya region and their ecology. In: Tryapitsyn, V.A., ed. Harmful and useful insects of the Far East of the USSR. Proc. ZIN, Leningrad: Nauka, p. 5-73 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov, V.I. 1973. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of the South of the Far East and their seasonal cycles. In: Kuznetsov, V.I., ed. Lepidoptera of the fauna of the USSR and adjacent countries (Proc. VEO, v. 56). Leningrad: Nauka, p. 44-161 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov, V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov, V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka, p. 51-234 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov, V.I. 2001. Family Tortricidae (Olethreutidae). In: Ler, P.A., ed. Keys to the insects if the Russian Far East. V. 5(3). Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Vladivostok: Dal.nauka, p. 11-472 (in Russian).
Minder, I.F. 1959. Leafrollers damaging fruit crops in Oka bottomland. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 38(1): 98-110 (in Russian).
Nedoshivina, S.V. 2002. Polyphagous leafrollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: Archipini) and additions to species composition of their fauna of the Ulyanovsk Region. Nature of Simbirsk Volga Region, p. 115-121 (in Russian).
Ovsyannikova, E.I. 2003. Optimization of phytosanitary monitoring in orchards by use of synthetic sex attractants of lepidopteran pests. PhD Thesis. St.Petersburg: VIZR, 22 p. (in Russian).
Smetanin, A.N. 1974. Choristoneura diversana Hbn. - dangerous pest of cones of fur-trees. In: Tsitsin, N.V., ed. Byull. Gl. Bot. sada. Vol. 91. Moscow: Nauka, p. 78-80 (in Russian).
Tochenov, V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK, 260 p. (in Russian).
Tyumeneva, V.A. 1937. Tortricidae in orchard of Slavyansk district. In: Ivanov I.F. & Rubtsov I.A., eds. Results of research works of VIZR for 1936. Part 2. Pests and diseases of technical and fruit crops. Leningrad: VIZR, p. 379-383 (in Russian).
Vasil.ev, V.P., Livshits, I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos, 399 p. (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2006 © E.I.Ovsyannikova, I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map); I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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