The area and zones of harm for the Hibernating Large Ground Squirrel (or Large-Toothed Souslik; Russet Ground Squirrel) Citellus major Pallas (1778).

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist - F.A. Karlik, GIS-specialist - M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on maps of natural scale 1:12 000 000, 1:50 000 000, and according to published literature.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map of 2 thematic layers. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The range of natural habitat is distinguished by weak zone of harm, which is characterized by settlement density on agricultural lands (on average). This is determined if there are 1 to 10-15 inhabited holes on 1 ha.

Method of map production:

Two original published maps were used in creating the final map. The area of species distribution was determined according to Flint et al. (1970). Zone of weak harm was determined according to the All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (1975) and Ermakov & Titov (2000, 2003). Adjustment to southern border of harm zone is based on Flint et al. (1970).

Reference citations:

All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection. 1975. Distribution of main pests on crops in the USSR and efficiency of pest control. Methodical guidelines. Leningrad: VASHNIL, VIZR. 66 pp. (In Russian)
Flint V.E., Chugunov U.D., Smirin V.M. 1970. Mammals of the USSR. Moscow: Mysl. 473 pp. (In Russian)
Gromov I.M., Erbaeva M.A. 1995. Mammals of Russia and adjacent territories. Leporines and rodents. St. Petersburg: ZIN RAN. Opredeliteli po faune Rossii, izdavaemye Zoologicheskim institutom RAN, N. 167: 522. (In Russian).
Ermakov O.A., Titov S.V. 2000. Dynamic of borders of inhabitant area of Big Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus major (Rodentia, Sciuridae) in Volga region. Zoologicheskii zhurnal, 79(4): 503-509. (In Russian)
Ermakov O.A., Titov S.V. 2003. Hibernating Large Ground Squirrel, or Russet Ground Squirrel Spermophilus major Pallas (1778). Publication on site Centre of protection wild nature: Rodents of former USSR.

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved.
Copyright © F.A. Karlik & M.I. Saulich (vector map, description)


As an illustration of Hibernating Large Ground Squirrel was used a picture of species from "Qualifier of mammals of USSR" (Borbinskiy N.A., Kuznetcov B.A., Kuzyakin A.P., 1965)

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