Area of distribution and damage of Cossus cossus L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists I.Ya. Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000 and 1: 17 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Only a zone of low damage was allocated within the limits of the general area in the territory of the former USSR. The species is found all over together with foliaceous trees; locally in steppe zones (in flood-plain forests, field-protecting forest belts, gardens and parks) and also in Central Asia in irrigation zones. The pest mainly occupies adult and old trees and frequently trees damaged by machines. In all zones of fruit growing the species belongs to the main orchard pests although the quantitative data on its harmful activity is not numerous. For example, in Ukraine the pest, together with the Leopard Moth, can populate up to 15% of fruit trees (Rafal.skii, 1975). The gradual increase of weakened trees populated by the pest compels facilities to carry out premature stubbing of gardens. Insecticide treatments of fruit trees in summer against a complex of lepidopteran pests also reduce the numbers of this pest (Zhemchuzhina & Stenina, 2001).

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. The Goat Moth area was outlined according to the following reference data on the species distribution: Kuznetsov & Martynova (1954), Kondakov (1963), Batiashvili (1965), Krasil.nikova (1967), Rudnev (1974) Rafal.skii (1975), Savkovskii (1976), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Zagulyaev (1978, 1994), Derzhavets et al. (1986), Kutenkova (1986), Chistyakov (1988, 1999), Kostyuk (1994), Bogolyubov & Kravchenko (2002), Anufriev & Bayanov (2002). It is distributed in the European part from the Caucasus to the northern border of distribution of deciduous trees, in Transcaucasia, Southern Siberia, Northern Kazakhstan, Central Asia, in the south of the Far East (Amur Region, Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories); in mountain areas it reaches the upper border of forests. The northern border of the species area was drawn along the northern border of deciduous and mixed forests (Chikov, 1983). In the European part it was adjusted northward to southern areas of Karelia and Komi based on the following sources: Kullberg et al. (2001), Charushina & Shernin (1974), Sedykh (1974). High mountains and desert lands of the Caspian Depression, the Caucasus, and Central Asia were excluded from the area. Near the northern border of the area and in Siberia the species is known locally. The zone of low pest damage includes all zones of fruit growing in the territory of the former USSR based on the following sources: Batiashvili (1965), Krasil.nikova (1967), Rudnev (1974), Rafal.skii (1975), Savkovskii (1976), Smol.yannikov (1979), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Chistyakov (1988). It was adjusted along areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops (Tochenov, 1984).

Reference citations:

Anufriev G.A., Bayanov N.G. 2002. Invertebrate Fauna of Kerzhenskii reserve by results of researches in 1993-2001. In: Anufriev G.A., ed. Materials on fauna of Nizhniy Novgorod Trans-Volga area. Proceedings of the state natural reserve "Kerzhenskii". V. 2. Nizhnii Novgorod: GPZ Kerzhenskii. 152-354 p. (In Russian)
Batiashvili I.D. 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba. 336 p. (In Russian)
Bogolyubov A.S., Kravchenko M.V. 2002. Atlas - keys to insect pests of wood trees of middle belt of Russia. Moscow: Ekosistema. . (In Russian)
Charushina A.N., Shernin A.I. 1974. Order Lepidoptera. In: Shernin A.I., ed. Fauna of the Kirov Region. V. 2. Kirov: Kirov GPI. 351-477 p. (In Russian)
Chikov P.S., ed. 1983. Atlas of areas and resources of herbs of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 340 p. (In Russian)
Chistyakov Yu.A. 1988. Cossidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of the Far Eastern agriculture. Keys. Vladivostok: DVO AN SSSR. 55-60 p. (In Russian)
Chistyakov Yu.A. 1999. Cossidae. In: Ler P.A., ed. Keys to the insects if the Russian Far East. V. 5(2). Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Vladivostok: Dal.nauka. 309-317 p. (In Russian)
Derzhavets Yu.A., Ivanov A.I., Mironov V.G., Mishchenko O.A., Prasolov V.I., Sinev S.Yu. 1986. List of Macrolepidoptera of Leningrad Region. In: Gilyarov M.S., ed. Fauna of Lepidoptera of the USSR. Proc. VEO. V.67. Leningrad: Nauka. 186-270 p. (In Russian)
D.yakonov A.M., Kozhanchikov I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii E.N., Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 179-198 p. (In Russian)
Kobakhidze D.N. 1957. Harmful entomofauna in agricultural crops of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz. SSR. 274 p. (In Russian)
Kondakov Yu.P. 1963. Ocneria dispar L. in forests of Krasnoyarsk Territory. In: Zhukov A.B., ed. Protection of Siberian forests against insect pests. Moscow: AN SSSR. 30-78 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kosterin O.E. 2000. Biodiversity of fauna and flora of Siberia. Siberia: . (In Russian)
Kostyuk I.Yu., Golovushkin M.I. 1994. To studying Lepidoptera, Macroheterocera of Eastern Transbaikalia. In: Nekrutenko Yu.P., ed. Lepidoptera of Transbaikalia. Proc. of Daurskii Nature Reserve. V. 2. Kyiv: Institute of zoology of NAN Ukraine. 51-57 p. (In Russian)
Krasil.nikova G.A. 1967. Lepidoptaran orchard pests in SW Turkmenistan. PhD Thesis. Ashkhabad: ZIN AN SSSR & IZ AN TurkmSSR. 21 p. (In Russian)
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L., Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki) 6(2): 1-190.
Kutenkova N.N. 1986. Lepidoptera of the nature reserve "Kivach". In: Yakovlev E.B., Uzenbaev S.D., eds. Fauna and ecology of Karelian invertebrates. Petrozavodsk: Karelian branch AN SSSR. 123-158 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I., Martynova E.F. 1954. List of Lepidoptera of Middle Ural River Basin. In: Pavlovskii E.N., ed. Proceedings of ZIN RAS. V. 16. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 321-350 p. (In Russian)
Rafal.skii A.K. 1975. Apple pests in subzone of southern steppe in Ukraine and grounds for their control. In: Stanko A.I., ed. Plant protection (inter-university collection of works). V. 145. Kishinev: Kishinev SKHI. 77-83 p. (In Russian)
Rudnev D.F. 1974. Cossidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 226-228 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Sedykh K.F. 1974. Animal world of Komi ASSR. Invertebrates. Syktyvkar: Komi Publishing House. 189 p. (In Russian)
Smol.yannikov V.V. 1979. Pests of wood, cambium and bark. Zashchita rastenii 2: 52-53. (In Russian)
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 260 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)
Zagulyaev A.K. 1978. Cossidae. In: Medvedev G.S., ed. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. V. 4(1). Leningrad: Nauka. 177-186 p. (In Russian)
Zagulyaev A.K. 1994. Cossidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 47-51 p. (In Russian)
Zhemchuzhina A.A., Stenina N.P. 2001. Protection of garden and kitchen garden against pests and diseases (practical guidance). St. Petersburg: MiM-Del.ta. 608 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map, photo), M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map).

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