Area of distribution and damage of Cydia pomonella L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists I.Ya. Grichanov & E.I. Ovsyannikova, GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of pest damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The distribution area is presented within the area of industrial cultivation of fruits in the territory of the former USSR. The species causes harm everywhere, and there is a risk of losing the lion's share of yield (from 15 to 35%) with 100% probability (Grichanov, 1997). Within the limits of the general distribution area, 3 zones of damage were allocated, i.e., high, moderate, and low, depending on the number of generations and the minimal number of necessary treatments against the pest. Zones of Codling Moth damage were defined by economic criterion of the minimally necessary frequency rate of treatments (2) against caterpillars of the Codling Moth of every generation. In the zone of low damage the species develops one full generation, in the zone of moderate damage the pest is bivoltine, and in the zone of high damage it produces 3 or more generations (Vasil.ev & Livshits, 1984).

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. Maps compiled by Shel.dyshova (1967) and Danilevskii & Kuznetsov (1968) were used as prototypes. Analysis of the northern border of the Codling Moth area has shown that isoline .120 days with average daily temperature higher than 10 degrees C. reflects the actual area better, than isolines of Degree Days (DD) (Rubinshtein, 1972), therefore the northern border was adjusted according to the Agroclimatic Atlas (Konyukova, 1972) and taking into account the following actual records: Kolmakova (1962), Batiashvili (1965), Danilevskii & Kuznetsov (1968), Charushina & Shernin (1974), Babenko (1982), Prokof.ev (1987), Ermolaev (1988). The following publications on the species find it outside this border, for example, in Karelia, Baikal Region, and on Pamir (up to 2650 m above sea level) should be attributed to the potential (autecological) area of the species, where the caterpillars have no time to finish their development at the end of season, or they, for the most part, perish from the frost in severe winters: Kolmakova (1962), Sutyagin (1967), Prokof.ev (1987), Miralibekov (1986). At least 2 insecticide treatments against caterpillars of the Codling Moth of every generation is required for control of this species. It follows that the zone with one full generation of the pest development and varying extent of the 2nd generation is situated between isolines 120 and 150 days (Konyukova, 1972), and is referred to as the zone of low damage. The zone with development of 2 full generations and varying extent of the 3rd generation is situated between isolines 150 and 180 days (Konyukova, 1972), and is referred to as the zone of moderate damage. The zone with development of 3 or more generations is situated south of isoline .180 days with average daily temperatures higher than 10 degrees C. (Konyukova, 1972), and is referred to as the zone of high damage. The borders of the damage zones correspond to the data and reports of the following sources: D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov (1949), Vasil.ev (1955), Kostyuk (1974), Polyakov et al. (1984), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Kuznetsov (1994). The borders were also adjusted according to the areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops (Tochenov, 1984). In conditions of climate warming the borders of all zones may shift northward (Ovsyannikova & Grichanov, 2002).

Reference citations:

Babenko Z.S. 1982. Phytophagous insects of fruit and berry plants in forest zone of Ob River Region. Tomsk: Tomsk University. 268 p. (In Russian)
Batiashvili I.D. 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba. 336 p. (In Russian)
Charushina A.N., Shernin A.I. 1974. Order Lepidoptera. In: Shernin A.I., ed. Fauna of the Kirov Region. V. 2. Kirov: Kirov GPI. 351-477 p. (In Russian)
D.yakonov A.M., Kozhanchikov I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii E.N., Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 179-198 p. (In Russian)
Danilevskii A.S., Kuznetsov V.I. 1968. Tortricidae, tribe Laspeyresiini. In: Bykhovskii B.E., ed. Fauna of the USSR, New Ser. N. 98. Lepidoptera. V. 5(1) Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 636 p. (In Russian)
Ermolaev V.P. 1988. Tortricidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of agriculture in the Far East. Keys. Vladivostok: Biology and Soil Institute, DO AN SSSR. 65-99 p. (In Russian)
Grichanov I.Ya. 1997. Integral criterion of phytosanitary estimation of agricultural territories. Proc. of St. Petersburg St. Agr. Univ. St. Petersburg: St. Agr. Univ. 95-100 p. (In Russian)
Grichanov I.Ya., Mitrofanov V.B., Sazonov A.P., Saulich M.I., Fedorova R.N. 1997. Integrated phytosanitary monitoring of pests and deseases in ecologically safe technology of orchard protection. Problemy fitosanitarnogo sostoyaniya rastenievodstva. Proc. of All-Russian Congr. on Plant Prot.; 1995 Dec; St. Petersburg. 158-165 p. (In Russian)
Kolmakova V.D. 1962. Lepidopteran pests of fruit-berry plants in Transbaikalia. In: Bolbaduev V.O., ed. Pests of forest and fruit-berry cultures in Transbaikalia. Ulan-Ude: Buryatskii kompleksnyi NII. 96-135 p. (In Russian)
Konyukova L.G. 1972. Longevity of period with air temperatures above 10o. In: Gol.tsberg I.A., ed. Agroclimatic atlas of the world. Moscow-Leningrad: Gidrometizdat. 62 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 261-320 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 51-234 p. (In Russian)
Makhotkin A.G., Makhotkina L.Ya., Grichanov I.Ya., Ovsyannikova E.I. 2004. Pheromone monitoring of Cydia pomonella. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, 5: 47-48. (In Russian)
Makhotkin A.G., Pavlyushin V.A. 2002. Technology of monitoring and timing of treatments against Codling Moth, California Scale and Apple Scap in Azov seacoast region. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 52 p. (In Russian)
Miralibekov N. 1986. Ecological and faunistic review of insects - pests of fruit crops in the Western Pamirs. In: Chikatunov V.I., ed. Fauna, ecology and zoogeography of Pamirs. Dushanbe: Donish. 50-55 p. (In Russian)
Ovsyannikova E.I., Grichanov I.Ya. 2002. Development of the codling moth under conditions of climate warming in the European part of Russia. Plant Protection News (Saint-Petersburg-Pushkin), 3: 20-28. (In Russian)
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 6-45 p. (In Russian)
Prokof.ev M.A. 1987. Siberian orchards protection against pests. Moscow: Rossel.khozizdat. 239 p. (In Russian)
Rubinshtein E.S. 1972. Air temperatures total for the period above 10o. In: Gol.tsberg I.A., ed. Agroclimatic atlas of the world. Moscow-Leningrad: Gidrometizdat. 27 p. (In Russian)
Shel.dyshova G.G. 1967. Ecological factors defining area of Laspeyresia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in northern and southern hemispheres. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 46(3): 583-606. (In Russian)
Sutyagin S.N. 1967. Codling Moth and its control. Moscow: MGU. 32 p. (In Russian)
Vasil'ev V.P. 1955. Pests of fruit crops. Kiev: AN Ukr. SSR. 265 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

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Copyright 2004 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov, & M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map, description); I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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