Area of distribution and damage of Erannis defoliaria Cl.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists I.Ya.Grichanov & E.I.Ovsyannikova,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open published literature and maps of scale 1: 17 000 000 and 1:33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map consisting of 2 layers. Area and zone of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

Zone of low damage only is allocated within the limits of general area, corrected according with the areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops where the pest has economic significance. Taking into account similarity in ecology and biology of Erannis defoliaria and Operophthera brumata, one can use the economic threshold of harmfulness for the latter species: 4-10 eggs or caterpillars per running meter of branches, or 5-10% of damaged buds before blossoming of fruiters; 1-3 caterpillars per 100 ovaries, or 12-15% of damaged leaves, or 12-15 damaged ovaries per 100 rosettes after blossoming (Dolzhenko, 2004). The Mottled Umber is sometimes able to exceed considerably this threshold in some orchards (Lomakin, Lapa, 1976; Mironov, 1999; etc.). Its control is maintained simultaneously with the control of other pests damaging buds, leaves, and ovaries.

Method of map production:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published materials. The Mottled Umber area is outlined according to original and reference data on the species distribution (Kobakhidze, 1957; Milyanovskii, 1974; Bolotnikova, Sil.vanovich, 1984; Vorontsov, 1982; Pokozii et al., 1989; Mironov, 1999; Kanash, 2005; etc.). Northern border of the area in the European Russia is extrapolated along the northern border of mixed forests (Chikov, 1983), corresponding generally with actual records and collection of the Zoological Institute (Russian Academy of Sciences). It is shifted northward to southern Karelia and Leningrad Region (Viidalepp, 1996; Kullberg, 2001; Hausmann et al., 2005; Collection of the Zoological Institute); in the South (including Crimea, Caucasus and forest-steppe of Ukraine), the species is distributed everywhere (Collection of the Zoological Institute; Lomakin, Lapa, 1986; V.G.Mironov, pers. comm.). In Transcaucasia, the Mottled Umber is known in all republics (Kobakhidze, 1957; Lozovoi, 1965; Badalyan, Vardikyan, 1984), being found also in Kyrgyzstan (Amankulova, 1986), Tadjikistan and Kazakhstan (Mironov, 1999). In Central Asia, the area coincides with apple distribution and being shown according to Terekhina and Kalibernova (2005). Beyond the Urals the species is known to Altai Territory of Russia (Collection of the Zoological Institute; Mironov, 1999), having sporadic distribution. The area is corrected here along forest-steppe zone according to the map of vegetation in the USSR (Chikov, 1983) in view of actual records. High mountains of the Caucasus and Middle Asia, as well as desert lands of Northern Caspian Depression and Middle Asia, are excluded from the area. Published records of the species from the Far East (Viidalepp, 1996) belong to Erannis golden (V.G.Mironov, pers. comm.). The zone of low damage is corrected in view of actual records from the European part of the former USSR (Kobakhidze, 1957; Milyanovskii, 1974; Lomakin, Lapa, 1976; Bolotnikova, Sil.vanovich, 1984; Pokozii et al., 1989; Mironov, 1999; Kanash, 2005; etc.). Registration and vectorization of raster map are executed by means of GIS-technologies.

Reference citations:

Amankulova, T.K. 1986. The Mottled Umber in walnut-fruit forests of southern Kyrgyzstan. In: Solov.ev V.A., ed. Ecology and forest protection. Ecology of forest animals. Leningrad: LTA, p. 26-28 (in Russian).
Badalyan Dzh.V., Vardikyan S.A. 1984. Geometridae (Lepidoptera) . pests of dog-rose in Armenia. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. 9th VEO Congress. Abstracts (Kiev, October, 1984). Part. 1. Kiev: AN UkrSSR, p. 39 (in Russian).
Bolotnikova, V.V., Sil.vanovich, S.I. 1984. On harmfulness of Geometridae in orchards of Byelorussia. In: Vasil.ev, V.P., ed. 9th VEO Congress. Abstracts (Kiev, October, 1984). Part. 1. Kiev: AN UkrSSR, p. 63 (in Russian).
Chikov, P.S., ed. 1983. Atlas of areas and resources of herbs of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK, 340 p. (in Russian).
Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St.Petersburg, Russia.
Dolzhenko, V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St.Petersburg: VIZR, 363 p. (in Russian).
Eskov, S.V., Dubrovin, V.V. 2006. Features of distribution dendrophilous insects in oak forests of the Saratov Region (in Russian).
Hausmann, A., Mironov, V. & Viidalep, J. 2005. Erannis defoliaria (Clerck 1759). In: Karsholt, O., van Nieukerken, E.J., eds. Lepidoptera. Fauna Europaea, version 1.1,
Kanash, Ya.A. 2005. Geometridae . apple pests in northwestern Russia and biological grounds of their control. PhD Thesis. Moscow: RGAU-MSKHA, 24 p. (in Russian).
Kobakhidze, D.N. 1957. Harmful entomofauna in agricultural crops of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz. SSR, 274 p. (in Russian).
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L.,Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki) 6(2): 1-190.
Lomakin, M.D., Lapa, A.M. 1986. Specific composition and regulation of population of Geometridae - apple pests in the central forest-steppe of the USSR. In: Kirik, N.N., ed. Protection of agricultural crops from pests and diseases. Collection of proceedings. Kiev: Ukr SA, p. 76-80 (in Russian).
Lozovoi, D.I. 1965. Insect pests of park and forest-park plantings of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz SSR, 268 p. (in Russian).
Milyanovskii, E.S. 1974. Family Geometridae. In: Vasil.ev, V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 343-352 (in Russian).
Mironov, V.G. 1999. Family Geometridae. In: Kuznetsov, V.I., ed. Insects and mites . pests of agricultural crops. Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. V. 3(2). p. 254-273 (in Russian).
Pokozii, I.T., Murza, V.I., Lapa, A.M. 1989. Geometridae on apple. Zashchita rastenii 8: 27-28 (in Russian).
Savkovskii, P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (in Russian).
Tochenov, V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK, 260 p. (in Russian).
Vasil.ev, V.P., Livshits, I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos, 399 p. (in Russian).
Viidalepp J. 1996. Checklist of the Geometridae (Lepidoptera) of the former U.S.S.R. Stenstrup: Apollo Books, 111 p.
Vorontsov, A.I. 1982. Forest entomology. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 384 p. (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2006 © I.Ya.Grichanov E.I., Ovsyannikova (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map); I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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