Pests

Area of distribution and damage of Grapholita delineana Walker

Object description Download GIS-layers

Authors:

Object specialists E.I.Ovsyannikova & I.Ya.Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:

25.07.2007.

Scale:

1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000.

Projection:

"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map consisting of 1 layer. Area and zone of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

The zone of Eurasian Hemp Moth's harm is not shown due to current insignificant economic value of the pest. However, the species had economic significance in 1960-70 in almost all areas, with economic threshold 1-2 caterpillars per 1 plant of hemp (Tkalich, 1971).

Method of map production:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published materials and Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St.Petersburg, Russia. The species area is outlined according to reference and original data on its distribution (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1958; 2005; L.vovskii, 1981; Kostyuk, 1974; Kozinets, 1964; Rims.kii & Tsibul.ska, 1967; Kuznetsov, 1994, 2005; Polyakov et al., 1981; etc.). Before the 1950s, the Hemp Moth was never reported in Russian literature, and the species was known in the USSR from only several points of the Caucasus (European-Caucasian population), and also in the Far East (East-Asian population). A massive outbreak of the pest in 1960 in Ukraine, 1967 in Kabardino-Balkaria and other regions of the Caucasus and East Europe was connected to delivery of hemp seeds from Inner Mongolia (China) in previous years (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968). The Hemp Moth was probably brought with seeds from China where the pest population had trophic relations to hemp, and the morphologically indistinguishable East-Asian population quickly spread in South Europe. Subsequently, there was a great reduction of hemp cultivation area. In the USSR, this crop occupied about 430,000 hectares on average in 1956-1960. Areas under the crop were 202,000 hectares in 1970, and it decreased to 102,000 hectares in 1982. Crops of industrial hemp were completely liquidated in Byelorussia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan; recently reduced to approximately 6,000 hectares in Russia and 3,000 hectares in Ukraine (Anon, 2001; Grigor.ev, 2006). Since early 1980s, original records of the species and reports of its damage have completely disappeared from Russian literature. There is an open question whether the introduced Hemp Moth East-Asian population still keeps today on the run-wild and wild hemp within the limits of its area in 1960-1980. Therefore, a map of the pest area is compiled for that period; it includes steppe and forest-steppe zones of Ukraine, Moldova, the Northern Caucasus (from the central districts of Krasnodar Territory to Alania), and Transcaucasia (Armenia - 38,893 N, 46,259 E) after the data of Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968; Shutova & Strygina, 1969; Dzhaboev, 1973; Kozinets, 1978; Polyakov et al., 1981. Within the limits of Central Asia, the species was found on hemp in Kyrgyzstan (Chu Valley) according to Shutova & Strygina (1969), but subsequently it was not marked there. Kazakhstan (Kuznetsov, 2005) was likely included in the area of distribution instead of Kyrgyzstan. In the Far East, the species was found in the south of Khabarovsk Territory (to the south of Khabarovsk), in Primorski Territory (along border with China), in the south of Sakhalin, in Southern Kurils (Kunashir) after Kuznetsov 1994, 2005; etc.; but it was not marked on cultural hemp. During the mass outbreak the species was most nocuous in the Cherkassy Region of Ukraine, in Bryukhovetskii, Kanevskii and Kurganinskii districts of Krasnodar Territory and in Kabardino-Balkaria after reports of Rims.kii & Tsibul.ska (1967); Dzhaboev, 1973; Tkalich, 1978; etc. (see review of Kuznetsov, 1994); on this map the zone of its damage is not allocated. The Hemp Moth area is corrected along border of hemp-growing area (vector map compiled by Smekalova, 2004).

Reference citations:

Anon., ed. 2001. Statistical year-book of Ukraine for 2000. Ki╖v: Tekhn╕ka. http://www.library.tane.edu.ua/files/EVD/agr_econ_i_runok.pdf (in Ukrainian).
Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St.Petersburg, Russia.
Danilevskii A.S. & Kuznetsov V.I. 1968. Tortricidae, tribe Laspeyresiini. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, 636 p. (Bykhovskii B.E., ed. Fauna of the USSR, new ser., N 98. Lepidoptera. V. 5(1)) (in Russian).
Dzhaboev K.Sh. 1973. in Kabardino-Balkaria. Zashchita rastenii 7: 41 (in Russian).
Dzhaboev K.Sh. 1975. Insecticides for Hemp Moth control. Len i konoplya 7: 27 (in Russian).
Grigor.ev S. 2006. [Interview to correspondent of Rosbalt]. The digest from May, 12, 2006. http://www.Gnk.Gov.Ru/Index.Php?Module=Contentexpress&Func=Display&Ceid=680&Meid
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 261-320 (in Russian).
Kozinets N.I. 1964. New dangerous pest of hemp. Len i konoplya 1: 33-34 (in Russian).
Kryachko Z. 1965. Attention - Hemp Moth. Zashchita rastenii 5: 41 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites . pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka, p. 51-234 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov V.I. 2005. Family Tortricidae (Olethreutidae, Grapholitini). In: Ler P.A., ed. Keys to the insects if the Russian Far East. V. 5(5). Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Vladivostok: Dal.nauka, p. 575 (in Russian).
L.vovskii A.L. 1981. Tortricidae. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of industrial cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos: 170-175 (in Russian).
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1981. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of industrial cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of industrial cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos: 5-26 (in Russian).
Rims.kii V.I. & Tsibul.s.ka G.M. 1967. Biological features of Hemp Moth development. Visnik sil.skogospodars.koi nauki (Kiiv) 12: 51-55 (in Ukrainian).
Senchenko G. I. & Timonina M.A., eds. 1978. Hemp. Moscow: Kolos, 286 p. (in Russian).
Shutova N.N. & Strygina S.P. 1969. Hemp Moth. Zashchita rastenii 11: 49-50 (in Russian).
Smekalova T.N. 2004. Area of Cannabis sativa L. http://www.agroatlas.ru.
Spivak V.V., Baklozhenko M.G. 1977. From experience of Hemp Moth control. Len i konoplya 5: 32 (in Russian).
Tkalich P.P. 1971. Recommendations for control of the main pests and diseases of hemp. Moscow: Kolos, 8 p. (in Russian).
Tkalich P.P. 1973. Against Hemp Moth. Zashchita rastenii 1: 56 (in Russian).
Tkalich P.P. 1978. Pests and diseases of hemp and their control. In: Senchenko G. I. & Timonina M.A., eds. 1978. Hemp. Moscow: Kolos, 286 p. (in Russian).
Tkalich P.P., Kozinets N.I. & Skurikhina I.V. 1968. Hemp Moth and its control. Moscow: Kolos, 6 p. (in Russian).
Tkalich P.P., Lepskaya L.A. & Goloborod.ko P.A. 1983. System of hemp protection. Zashchita rastenii 1: 46-49 (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2007 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map)
Photo © V.Neymorovets (VIZR)
 

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