Area of distribution and damage of Grapholita funebrana Tr.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I. Ovsyannikova & I.Ya. Grichanov, GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000 and 1: 12 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

It is a vector map consisting of 4 layers. Area and zones of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

The area is shown within the area of industrial cultivation of fruits in the territory of the former USSR. Within the limits of the general area two zones were allocated, i.e., zones of high and moderate damage (Popova, 1971; Polyakov et al., 1984). In the zone of high damage the number of G. funebrana during the entire period of stone fruit vegetation (from flowering until harvest) exceeds economic threshold, that is 5% ovaries with eggs or 2-5% damaged ovaries (Dolzhenko, 2004). Thus, in the south of the European part of the former USSR (from Moldova to the Lower Volga region, in Transcaucasia and Middle Asia) the 2nd generation is especially nocuous, damaging to 70-80% of fruits (Kuznetsov, 1994). In the zone of moderate damage (forest-steppe zone of the European part, the south of Siberia and the Far East) the pest usually develops one full generation, harming constantly at a moderate extent and periodically at a strong extent; control is necessary at excess of the economic threshold (Polyakov et al., 1984). For example, sometimes more than half yield is lost in forest-steppe and steppe zones of Omsk Region, in Transbaikalia and Primorskii Territory (Kuznetsov, 1994). There are few records regarding the pest harmfulness in the rest of its area, the detailed information is absent, and therefore, it is not possible to allocate the zone of low damage.

Procedure of map drawing:

The map was compiled according to results of the analysis of open published materials and maps. Map compiled by A.S.Danilevskii and G.G.Shel.deshova (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968, Fig. 51) were used as a prototype. Northern border of the area in Leningrad Region was lifted northward (Kuznetsov, 1994; Kullberg et al., 2001; Ovsyannikova, 2003); the area of West-Siberian population of G. funebrana was shifted eastward to Khakassia and Altai Territory, located within the limits of the zone of fruit growing (Prokof.ev, 1987; Piskunov, 2004); in Central Asia the map drawn by A.S.Danilevskii and G.G.Shel'deshova was corrected along borders of economically significant areas of fruit crops (Tochenov, 1984), whereas deserted areas and also high mountains of Pamir and Tien Shan were excluded from the area according to literature data (D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov, 1949; Kuznetsov, 1954; Matesova et al., 1962; Danilevskii et al., 1962; Porsaev, 1966; Krasil.nikova, 1967). High mountains of the Caucasus were also excluded (Dobrovol.skii, 1959; Batiashvili, 1965). The analysis of publications on this species distribution in the Far East (the Amur Region, the Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories, Sakhalin, Shikotan) testifies that the species area was confined to the zone of deciduous forests and to the forest-steppe (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968; Volosnikova et al., 1968; Shtundyuk & Ablakanova, 1969; Ermolaev; 1988; Tovba et al., 1990; Dashevskii, 1991; Zhestkova, 2002; Ostapchuk, 2004), therefore the area was drawn along borders of the specified zones by use of Barysheva.s map (1992). The zone of moderate damage includes forest-steppe zone of Ukraine and European Russia (Popova, 1971; Kostyuk, 1974; Polyakov et al., 1984), specified according to Barysheva.s map (1992), and also areas of economically significant plantations of fruit crops in Siberia and the Far East (Kolmakova, 1966; Tochenov, 1984; Prokof.ev, 1987; Kuznetsov, 1994). The zone of high damage embraces almost the entire European part southward of forest-steppe in addition to Transcaucasia (Vasil.ev, 1955; Batiashvili, 1965; Popova, 1971; Kostyuk, 1974; Polyakov et al., 1984). In Central Asia and southern Kazakhstan it coincides with the species area (D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov, 1949; Kuznetsov, 1954; Porsaev, 1966; Krasil.nikova, 1967). Harming activity of G. funebrana in the rest of its area is not reported in details by Soviet and Russian experts.

Sources of the data:

Barysheva Yu.A., Bruk S.I., Dmitriev A.V., Stroev K.V., Sutormin A.I., Shashko D.I., Yagust S.I. 1992. Zones of soil-vegetation types. In: Geographical Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: Com. Geodesy and cartography of the USSR. 48 p. (in Russian)
Batiashvili I.D. 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba, 336 p. (in Russian)
D.yakonov A.M. & Kozhanchikov I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii E.N. & Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR: 179-198 (in Russian)
Danilevskii A.S. 1955. Sem. Tortricidae. In: Shtakel.berg A.A., ed. Forest pests. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, V. 1, p. 62-115 (in Russian).
Danilevskii A.S., Kuznetsov V.I. 1968. Tortricidae, tribe Laspeyresiini. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, 636 p. (Bykhovskii B.E., ed. Fauna of the USSR, new ser., N 98. Lepidoptera. V. 5(1)) (in Russian).
Danilevskii A.S., Kuznetsov V.I., Fal.kovich M.I. 1962. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) in montane areas of Kazakhstan. In: Marikovskii P.I., ed. Materials on study of insects of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: AN Kaz.SSR, p. 69-117 (in Russian)
Dashevskii S.V., ed. 1991. Forecast of distribution of the main pests, diseases and weeds of agricultural crops in Khabarovsk Territory for 1991. Khabarovsk: STAZR, 56 p. (in Russian)
Dobrovol.skii B.V. 1959. Distribution of insect pests. Foci and zones of maximum harm. Moscow: Sovetskaya nauka, 216 p. (in Russian).
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St.Petersburg: VIZR, 363 p. (in Russian).
Ermolaev V.P. 1988. Tortricidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of agriculture in the Far East. Keys. Vladivostok: Biology and Soil Institute, DO AN SSSR: 65-99 (in Russian)
Kolmakova V.D. 1966. Lepidoptera damaging fruit and berry plants in southwestern Transbaikalia and creation of biological system of the main apple pest control, Grapholitha inopinata Heinr. PhD Thesis. Leningrad: VIZR, 18 p. (in Russian)
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev, V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 261-320 (in Russian).
Krasil.nikova G.A. 1967. Lepidoptaran orchard pests in SW Turkmenistan. PhD Thesis. Ashkhabad: ZIN AN SSSR & IZ AN TurkmSSR, 21 p. (in Russian)
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L.,Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki) 6(2): 1-190.
Kuznetsov V.I. 1954. Lepidoptera of Western Kopet-Dag, their ecology and economic significance. PhD Thesis. Leningrad: LGU, 16 p. (in Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov, V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1).Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka, p. 51-234 (in Russian).
Matesova G.Ya., Mityaev I.D. Yukhnevich L.A. 1962. Review of insects damaging fruit and berry cultures and grape-vine in Southwest Kazakhstan. In: Marikovskii P.I., ed. Materials on study of insects of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: AN Kaz.SSR, p. 3-46 (in Russian).
Ostapchuk N. 2004. No chemicals. Arsen.evskie vesti, N 22 (385) 27.05.2004. (in Russian)
Ovsyannikova E.I. 2003. Optimization of phytosanitary monitoring in orchards by use of synthetic sex attractants of lepidopteran pests. PhD Thesis. St.Petersburg: VIZR, 22 p. (in Russian).
Piskunov E.I. 2004. Plums accustomed in Khakassia. Dachnitsa. 16.07.2004. (in Russian)
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos: 6-45 (in Russian).
Popova A.I. 1971. Biology of Grapholitha funebrana Tr. (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) at Black Sea coast of Krasnodar Territory. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 50(2): 232-334 (in Russian).
Porsaev M. 1966. Pests of stone fruits in Samarkand Region. PhD Thesis. Kiev: UkrSKhA, 15 p. (in Russian)
Shtundyuk A.V., Ablakanova A.A. 1969. Pests and diseases of fruit-berry cultures and vines in the Far East and their control. Khabarovsk: Khabarovsk Publishing House, 140 p. (in Russian).
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK, 260 p. (in Russian)
Tovba M.S., Demina L.M., Gronina L.M., Miroshnichenko T.N. 1990. Forecast of distribution of the main pests, diseases and weeds of agricultural crops in Primorskii Territory for 1990 and their control. Vladivostok: STAZR, 82 p. (in Russian)
Vasil'ev V.P. 1955. Pests of fruit crops. Kiev: AN Ukr.SSR. 265 p. (in Russian).
Volosnikova V.V., Volnoboi B.M., Dashevskii S.V., Ksenofontov I.S., Neudachina A.S., Svinkina G.V. 1968. Instruction on control of pests and diseases of agricultural crops in Khabarovsk Territory, review of their distribution in 1967 and forecast of their occurrence in 1968. Khabarovsk: STAZR, 52 p. (in Russian).
Zhestkova G. 2002. Why does not plum sit on branch. In: Amurskaya zarya, N 32(5721) 7.08. 2002. (in Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved.
Copyright 2004 © E.I.Ovsyannikova, I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map), M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map,); I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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