Area of distribution and damage of Lepidosaphes ulmi L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist - G.E. David'yan
GIS-specialist - M.I. Saulich

Date of creation:




Accuracy of map:

Map was created using a map of scale 1:33,000,000 and information from published literature.


"Alber's Equal Conica for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Map is a vector map, which consists of 2 thematic layers. Area of distribution and zone of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Within the area of distribution, only a zone of low damage was established in accordance with the extent of damage to fruit crops. Threshold of harmfulness of L. ulmi on fruiters is about 3-4 scales of adult females for every 10 cm of branches before bud blossoming or 5 nymphs per square cm of branches in the beginning of vegetation. In the zone of low damage, the maximum harmfulness does not exceed 2-3 points on the 5-point scale of harmfulness (Kopaneva et al., 1984).

Mapping procedure:

Data from state publications were used for establishing the distrbution area and zone of pest damage. Borders of the distribution area and zone of pest damage were determined using Borkhsenius (1949, 1966), Talitskii (1954), Vasil'ev (1955, 1973), Matesova (1955), Batiashvili (1959), Danzig (1972, 1980, 1988), and Kopaneva (1984). In the former USSR, the distribution area spans the European region, the Caucasus, Southwestern Siberia, the Irkutsk region, the Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories, Middle Asia, and Kazakhstan. The northern border of the area passes through the Karelian Isthmus (Danzig, 1959) and Perm' (Vasil'ev, 1955). Borders of the zone of low damage were adapted to include economically significant areas of fruit cultivation, including Moldavia, most of Ukraine (westward to the Vinnytsya and Zhytomyr Regions), the Caucasus, Southern Belgorod and Voronezh Regions, the Lower Volga region, Southern and Southeastern Kazakhstan, and all of Middle Asia.

Sources of data:

Batiashvili, I.D. 1959. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Institut sel'skogo khozyaistva. 455 p. (in Russian).
Borkhsenius, N.S. 1949. Suborder Coccoidea. In: Pavlovskii E.N. & Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR. P. 220-222 (in Russian).
Borkhsenius, N.S. 1966. Catalogue of the armored scale insects (Diaspidoidea) of the world. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 449 p. (in Russian).
Danzig, E.M. 1959. About biological forms of Lepidosaphes ulmi (L.) (Homoptera, Coccoidea). Zoologicheskii zhurnal 38(6): 879-886 (in Russian).
Danzig, E.M. 1980. Coccinea (Homoptera) of the Far East of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. 368 p. (in Russian).
Danzig, E.M. 1984. Suborder Coccinea. In: Kopaneva, L.M., ed. Keys to harmful and useful insects and mites on fruit and berry crops in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 288 p. (in Russian).
Danzig, E.M. 1988. Suborder Coccinea (Homoptera). In: Keys to insects of the Far East of the USSR. V. 2. Homoptera and Hemiptera. Leningrad: Nauka. 972 p. (in Russian).
Kryzhanovskii, O.L. & Danzig, E.M., ed. 1972. Pest insects and mites of agricultural plants, V. 1. Leningrad: Nauka. 323 p. (in Russian).
Matesova, G.Ya. 1955. About biology and morphology of the Lepidosaphes ulmi L. Izvestiya AN Kaz.SSR. Biol. series. Alma-Ata: AN Kaz.SSR. N 9: 92-99. (in Russian).
Talitskii, V.I. 1954. Diaspididae and Coccidae Ц pests of fruiters in Moldavia. Kishinev: Gos. Izd. 46 p. (in Russian).
Vasil'ev V.P., 1955. Pests of orchards. Kiev: AN Ukr.SSR. 265 p. (in Russian).
Vasil'ev, V.P., ed. 1973. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 1. Kiev: Urozhai. 496 p. (in Russian).

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Copyright 2004 © G.E. David'yan & M.I. Saulich (vector map, description).
Photo: USDA Forest Service - Rocky Mountain Region Archives, USDA Forest Service (Jeffrey J. Witcosky).

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