Area of distribution and damage of Lyonetia clerkella L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists - E.I.Ovsyannikova & I.Ya.Grichanov,
GIS-specialist - M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open published literature and maps of scale 1:33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map. Area and zone of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

Within the limits of the L. clerkella area in the USSR territory, the zone of low damage is allocated where the pest has economic significance. Economic threshold has been proposed for the pest; i.e., 1-2 mines per leaf after flowering of fruiters (EPPO Standards, 1999). L. clerkella excesses this threshold considerably in some years and in some orchards in the zone of low damage (Beibutov & Mirzoev, 1968; Tumosyan, Grigoryan 1971).

Method of map production:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published materials. Malus domestica Borkh. is the most economically significant culture among food plants for the Apple Leaf Miner. Consequently, its area is drawn on the basis of vector map of a zone of distribution of apple tree compiled by N.V.Terekhina (2004), following literature data on the L. clerkella distribution (D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov, 1949; Kholchenkov, 1974; Charushina & Shernin, 1974; Prokof.ev, 1987; Matesova & Mityaev, 1962; Kobakhidze, 1957; Kuznetsov & Seksyaeva, 1994; Seksyaeva, 1981; Kryukova, 2004; etc.). The areal northern border in the European part passes from Finland through Karelian Isthmus (Kullberg et al., 2001), Leningrad (Kryukova, 2004) and Kirov Regions (Charushina & Shernin, 1974) toward Middle Ural Mountains (Kuznetsov & Martynova, 1954). The species is also known in Transcaucasia (Kobakhidze, 1957; Tumosyan, 1971; Goderdzishvili, 1980). It was not marked in Central Asia. Northwest, northeast, southern and southeast areas of Kazakhstan are included in the area after Matesova et al. (1962), D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov (1949). The south of Western Siberia is included after Prokof.ev (1987), Kuznetsov & Seksyaeva (1994), Yanovskii (2002), Tarasova & Sanina (2004). The species is not recorded between Krasnoyarsk and Amur territories, but its sporadic distribution is possible there. In the Far East, the species is known in the Amur Region, Primorskii and Khabarovsk Territories (Batiashvili, 1965; Kuznetsov & Seksyaeva, 1994; Dubatolov, 2000). The zone of L. clerkella low damage includes Transcaucasia (except high mountains) within the limits of the zone of industrial cultivation of apple trees (N.V.Terekhina's vector map, 2004). Some reference books marked economic significance of this object in Ukraine, Altai and Almaty areas (D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov, 1949; Kholchenkov, 1974; Prokof.ev, 1987), but original recent data on the species harming activity in those regions is not found.

Reference citations:

Batiashvili I.D. 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba, 336 p. (in Russian).
Beibutov R.A. & Mirzoev, A.N. 1968. Biological features of Apple Leaf Miner in conditions of Kuba-khachmas zone of Azerbaijan SSR. In: Kanchaveli L.A., ed. Proceedings of Session of Transcaucasian Board to coordination of research works on plant protection. Tbilisi: GruzNIIZR, p. 218-220 (in Russian).
Charushina A.N., Shernin A.I. 1974. Order Lepidoptera. In: Shernin A.I., ed. Fauna of the Kirov Region, V. 2. Kirov: Kirov GPI: 351-477 (in Russian).
D.yakonov A.M. & Kozhanchikov I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii E.N. & Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR: 179-198 (in Russian).
Dubatolov V.V. 2000. Lyonetiidae - Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum. Novosibirsk: Siberian Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Http://
EPPO Standards. Guidelines on good plant protection practice. Pome fruits. PP 2/18 (1). English (First approved in September 1999). Http://
Goderdzishvili V.Sh., Kachkachishvili Ts.S., Gotsiridze I.D. & Chagelishvili I.D. 1980. Features of population dynamics of mining moths in Meskhetia. In: Anon., ed. Proc. GruzNIIZR, v.31. Tbilisi: GruzNIIZR, p. 3-8 (in Russian).
Kholchenkov V.A. 1974. Family Lyonetiidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 230-231 (in Russian).
Kobakhidze D.N. 1957. Harmful entomofauna in agricultural crops of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz. SSR, 274 p. (in Russian).
Kryukova A.V. 2004. Mining moths . pests of apple-trees in Northwest of Russia and bioecological basis for their control. PhD Thesis. St. Petersburg-Pushkin, 16 p. (in Russian).
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L. & Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki), v. 6(2): 1-190.
Kuznetsov V.I. & Martynova E.F. 1954. List of Lepidoptera of Middle Ural River Basin. In: Pavlovskii E.N., ed. Proceedings of ZIN RAS, V. 16. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, p. 321-350 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov V.I. & Seksyaeva S.V. 1994. Family Lyonetiidae (Leucopteridae, Leucopterigidae, Cemiostomidae). In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites . pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka, p. 269-273 (in Russian).
Matesova G.Ya., Mityaev I.D. & Yukhnevich L.A. 1962. Review of insects damaging fruit and berry cultures and grapevine in Southwest Kazakhstan. In: Marikovskii P.I., ed. Materials on study of insects of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: AN Kaz.SSR, p. 3-46 (in Russian).
Prokof.ev M.A. 1987. Siberian orchards protection against pests. Moscow: Rossel.khozizdat, 239 p. (in Russian).
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (in Russian).
Seksyaeva S.V. 1981. Lyonetiidae. In: Medvedev G.S., ed. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. V. 4(2). Leningrad: Nauka, p. 420-431 (in Russian).
Tarasova O.V. & Sanina I.V. 2004. Vidovoi sostav nasekomykh-minerov listvennykh nasazhdenii Krasnoyarska i ego okrestnostei. Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Estestvenno-nauchnaya seriya 7: 45-48. (in Russian).
Terekhina N.V. 2004. Area of apple. Http://
Tumasyan L.A. & Grigoryan K.S. 1971. Apple Leaf Miner in Armenia. Izvestiya s.-kh. nauk 3: 117 (in Russian).
Yanovskii V.M. 2002. To the fauna of forest insects in Achinsk forest-steppes (Krasnoyarsk Territory). In: Baranchikov Yu.I. & Petrenko E.S. Entomological researches in Siberia. Iss. 2. Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk branch REO, p. 120-130 (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2006 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I. Saulich (VIZR, vector map)
Photo © V.Neymorovets (VIZR)

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