Area of distribution and damage of Opatrum sabulosum (L.)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I.Ovsyannikova & I.Ya.Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open published literature and maps of scale 1: 30 000 000 . 60 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map consisting of 2 layers. Area and zone of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

Within the limits of the general area, the zones of moderate and low damage are allocated for the pest having economic significance. In the zone of moderate damage, the species population density exceeds economic threshold under favorable conditions in spring. The threshold is 2 beetles per 1 sq.m (Voshedskii, 2004). The Darkling Beetle damages sporadically in places in the zone of low damage.

Method of map production:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published materials. The dotted map of species area by G.S.Medvedev (1981) is taken as a prototype, supplemented with data on its distribution from the applied literature (Znamenskii, 1926; Sakharov, 1947; Gussakovskii, 1949; Kobakhidze, 1957; Khakham, 1957; Arnol.di & Gur.ev, 1960; Medvedev, 196, 19745; Minoranskii, 1973, 1978, 1989; Belyaev, 1974; Knor, 1976; Kabanov, 1976; Polyakov & Kopaneva, 1980; Abdurakhmanov, 1994; etc.). Northern border of the area in the European part reaches the south of Karelia and Perm Territory (Znamenskii, 1926; Medvedev, 1965; Koz.minykh, 1997). The species is known from the Volga region (Sakharov, 1947), Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia (Minoranskii, 1973, 1978, 1989; Znamenskii, 1926; Medvedev, 1965; Kobakhidze, 1957; Abdurakhmanov, 1940; Khakham, 1957), North and East Kazakhstan (Medvedev, 1981; Nurmuratov, 1986). In Central Asia the Darkling Beetle lives in mountain and foothill zones of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (Popova, 1957; Gussakovskii, 1949; Medvedev, 1981); it occurs in Siberia eastward to Baikal (Medvedev, 1981; Kryzhanovsky, 2002). Records from Mongolia and Primorskii Territory belong to other species (Medvedev, 1981, 1992). High mountains and sandy deserts are excluded from the area. Steppe zone of Ukraine and Northern Caucasus are included in zone of moderate damage. The border of this zone in the Northern Caucasus is specified by results of the analysis of a map by Dobrovolskii (1959). Forest-steppe zone of the European part, the Lower Volga, the South of Siberia, and Kazakhstan and Central Asia are included into zone of low damage within the limits of areas of arable lands.

Reference citations:

Abdurakhmanov G.M. & Medvedev G.S. 1994. Catalog of Tenebrionidae of the Caucasus. Makhachkala, 213 p. (in Russian).
Arnol.di L.V. & Gur.eva E.L. 1960. Coleoptera. In: Arnol.di L.V., ed. Insect pests of maize in the USSR: handbook. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, p. 115-160 (in Russian).
Belyaev I.M. 1974. Pests of grain crops. Moscow: Kolos. 284 p. (in Russian).
Dobrovol.skii B.V. 1959. Distribution of insect pests. Foci and zones of maximum harm. Moscow: Sovetskaya nauka, 216 p. (in Russian).
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St.Petersburg: VIZR, 363 p. (in Russian).
Gussakovskii V.V. 1949. Coleoptera. In: Pavlovskii E.N. & Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, p. 57-110 (in Russian).
Kabanov V.A. 1977. Biology of Opatrum sabulosum L. in forest-steppes and steppes of the European part of the USSR. Biologicheskie nauki 9 (165): 47-53 (in Russian).
Khakham I.B., Klyueva M.P. & Rozinskii Sh.A. 1957. Maize pests and diseases in MoldSSR in 1955. In: Verderevskii D.D. & Zotsenko L.N., eds. Proc. MoldavSTAZR (1953-1956). Iss. 2. Kishinev: Part izd-vo TsK KP Moldavii, p. 29-36 (in Russian).
Knor I.B. 1976. Larvae of two species of Opatrini (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Tuva. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 55(2): 1733-1736 (in Russian).
Kobakhidze D.N. 1957. Harmful entomofauna in agricultural crops of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz. SSR, 274 p. (in Russian).
Koz.minykh V.O. 1997. Coleoptera (Insecta) of Perm Region. Message 11. Bibliography, brief notes. In: Esyunin S.L., ed. Coleoptera (Insecta) of Urals. Collection of papers. Issue 1. Perm.: Perm technical university, 206 p. (ps. 28-67). .
Kryzhanovskii O.L. 2002. Composition and distribution of entomofaunas of the world. Moscow: KMK, 237 p. (in Russian).
Medvedev G.S. 1965. Family Tenebrionidae. In: Bei-Bienko G.Ya., ed. Keys to insects of the European part of the USSR. V. 2. Moscow & Leningrad: Nauka, p. 356-381 (in Russian).
Medvedev G.S. 1974. Family Tenebrionidae. In: Kryzhanovskii O.L., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural crops. V. 2. Leningrad: Nauka, p. 123-133 (in Russian).
Medvedev G.S. 1981. Map 81. Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). In: Gorodkov K.B., ed. Areas of insects of the European part of the USSR. Atlas. Leningrad: Nauka, p. 12 (in Russian).
Medvedev G.S. 1992. Tenebrionidae. In: Ler, P.A., ed. Keys to insects of the Far East of the USSR. V. 2. Coleoptera, or beetles. Part 2. Leningrad: Nauka, p. 621-659 (in Russian).
Minoranskii V.A. 1973. Dependance of number and harmfulness of Opatrum sabulosum L. on hydrothermal conditions. Vestnik zoologii 5: 53-58 (in Russian).
Minoranskii V.A. 1978. Some features of biology and behavior of Opatrum sabulosum L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) in the Northern Caucasus. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 57(1): 37-47 (in Russian).
Minoranskii V.A. 1989. Protection of irrigated field cultures from pests. Moscow: VO Agrokhimizdat, 205 p. (in Russian).
Mishchenko A.I. 1957. Insects - pests of agricultural plants in the Far East. Khabarovsk: Khabarovsk Publishing House, 198 p. (in Russian).
Nurmuratov T.N., ed. 1986. Cereal protection from pests, diseases and weeds. Alma-Ata: Kainar: 268 p (in Russian).
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M. & Dorokhova G.I. 1980. Number of pests and entomophages of grain cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of grain cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos: 7-39 (in Russian).
Popova E.A. 1957. Maize pests of the USSR and adjacent states. In: Proskoryakov E.I., ed. Proc. UzbekGU. New ser. 76. Samarkand: Biologo-geograficheskii fakul.tet, p. 163-192 (in Russian).
Sakharov N.L. 1947. Harmful insects of lower Volga area. Saratov: OGIZ, 423 p. (in Russian).
Vasil'ev V.P., ed., 1974. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Kiev: Urozhai. 606 p. (in Russian).
Vorontsov A.I. 1982. Forest entomology. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 384 p. (in Russian).
Voshedskii N.N., ed. Forecast of occurrence and distribution of pests and diseases of agricultural crops, and weed vegetation on territory of the Rostov Region and recommended control measures in 2004. Rostov-na Donu: STAZR: 101-102 (in Russian).
Znamenskii A.V. 1926. Field insect pests. Part 1. Grain cereal pests. Poltava: Poltavskaya sel.-khoz. op. st. 296 p. (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2008 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map); I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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