Area of distribution and damage of Operophthera brumata L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists I.Ya. Grichanov & E.I. Ovsyannikova, GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 100 000 000 and 1: 33 000 000


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Only a zone of low damage was allocated within the limits of the general area in the territory of the former USSR. Here the pest has an economic significance with the following economic thresholds: 4-10 eggs or caterpillars per running meter of branches, or 5-10% of damaged buds before blossoming of fruiters; 1-3 caterpillars per 100 ovaries, or 12-15% of damaged leaves, or 12-15 damaged ovaries per 100 rosettes after blossoming (Dolzhenko, 2004). The Winter Moth is sometimes able to considerably exceed this threshold in some orchards according to the following sources: Belosel.skaya (1965), Savkovskii (1974), Pokozii et al. (1989), Mironov (1999). Its control is maintained simultaneously with the control of other pests that damage buds, leaves, and ovaries.

Method of map production:

The map drawn by Kozhanchikov (1950) was used as a prototype. The species area was expanded northward and eastward to the .areal vida v evropeiskoi chasti Rossii byl rasshiren na sever i vostok do Karelia., the south of Arkhangelsk and Kirov Regions, and to Bashkiria according to the following publications: Milyanovskii (1974), Charushina & Shernin (1974), Bolotnikova & Sil.vanovich (1984), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Kutenkova (1986), Belyaev (1988), Mironov (1999), Shakirova et al. (1999). The species is known in Georgia and Armenia according to the following sources: Kobakhidze (1957), Arakelyan (1964), Batiashvili (1965), Lozovoi (1965), Badalyan (1984). High mountains of the Caucasus were excluded from the area. The species is not found in Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. The following early data on the occurrence of the species in Siberia does not prove to be true in recent literature: Davydov (1920), Polyakov et al. (1984), Viidalepp (1996), Mironov (1999). In the Far East the Winter Moth is known from the Amur Region, Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories based on the following sources: Gibanov et al. (1977), Belyaev (1988), Mironov (1999). The zone of low damage for this species coincides with the area of its mass numbers, designated by the map of Kozhanchikov (1950). It was corrected along areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops (Tochenov, 1984).

Reference citations:

Arakelyan A.O. 1964. Review of orchard pests in Debedashen district of Armenia. In: Aivazyan P.K., ed. Proc. of the Armenian research institute of viniculture, winemaking and fruit growing. N. 6-7. Erevan: Ministry of Agriculture of Armenia. 428-455 p. (In Russian)
Badalyan Dzh.V., Vardikyan S.A. 1984. Geometridae (Lepidoptera) - pests of dog-rose in Armenia. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. 9th VEO Congress. Abstracts (Kiev, October, 1984). Part. 1. Kiev: AN UkrSSR. 39 p. (In Russian)
Batiashvili I.D. 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba. 336 p. (In Russian)
Belosel.skaya Z.G. 1965. Harmfulness of the Winter Moth in fruit and park plantings of Leningrad Region. In: Bei-Bienko G.YA. Protection of plants against pests and diseases. Proc. LSKHI. V. 95. Leningrad: LSKHI. 74-83 p. (In Russian)
Belyaev E.A. 1988. Family Geometridae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of the Far Eastern agriculture. Keys. Vladivostok: DVO AN SSSR. 130-149 p. (In Russian)
Bolotnikova V.V., Sil.vanovich S.I. 1984. On harmfulness of Geometridae in orchards of Byelorussia. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. 9th VEO Congress. Abstracts (Kiev, October, 1984). Part 1. Kiev: AN UkrSSR. 63 p. (In Russian)
Charushina A.N., Shernin A.I. 1974. Order Lepidoptera. In: Shernin A.I., ed. Fauna of the Kirov Region. V. 2. Kirov: Kirov GPI. 351-477 p. (In Russian)
Davydov A. 1920. The Winter Moth. St. Petersburg: State Publ. House. 4 p. (In Russian)
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 363 p. (In Russian)
Gibanov P.K., Kulik Z.A., Ignachenko V.I. 1977. Substantiation and improvement of system of chemical protection of pome cultures against pests and diseases. In: Slabko Yu.I., ed. Protection of plants in agriculture and forestry. Collection of works. V. 48. Ussuriisk: Primorskii SKHI. 44-47 p. (In Russian)
Kobakhidze D.N. 1957. Harmful entomofauna in agricultural crops of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz. SSR. 274 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kozhanchikov I.V. 1950. Cycle of development and geographical distribution of Operophtera brumata L. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 31(1-2): 178-197. (In Russian)
Kutenkova N.N. 1986. Lepidoptera of the nature reserve "Kivach". In: Yakovlev E.B., Uzenbaev S.D., eds. Fauna and ecology of Karelian invertebrates. Petrozavodsk: Karelian branch AN SSSR. 123-158 p. (In Russian)
Lozovoi D.I. 1965. Insect pests of park and forest-park plantings of Georgia. Tbilisi: AN Gruz SSR. 268 p. (In Russian)
Milyanovskii E.S. 1974. Family Geometridae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 343-352 p. (In Russian)
Mironov V.G. 1999. Family Geometridae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural crops. Lepidoptera. V. 3(2). St. Petersburg: Nauka. 254-273 p. (In Russian)
Pokozii I.T., Murza V.I., Lapa A.M. 1989. Geometridae on apple. Zashchita rastenii 8: 27-28. (In Russian)
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 6-45 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Shakirova S.M., Shamigulova L.G., Khairetdinov S.S., Galiev N.Kh., Ramazanov R.M. 1999. Forest - Biosphere and man. Ufa: Bashkir Encyclopedia. Ufa: (In Russian).
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 260 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)
Viidalepp J. 1996. Checklist of the Geometridae (Lepidoptera) of the former U.S.S.R. Stenstrup: Apollo Books. 111 p.

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © I.Ya. Grichanov, E.I. Ovsyannikova (VIZR; description, raster map), M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map,)
Photo © V.V.Neymorovets (VIZR)

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