Area of distribution and damage of Pandemis heparana Den. et Schiff

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I. Ovsyannikova & I.Ya. Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons and points. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Within the limits of the distribution area only a zone of low damage was allocated. In this zone the pest has an economic significance with the following economic thresholds: 1% damaged rosettes or 4-10 caterpillars per 100 rosettes before flowering of fruit cultures; 2 caterpillars per 100 ovaries or 3% damaged ovaries after flowering (Dolzhenko, 2004). Threshold trapping is 13 males in 1 pheromone trap during a week (Shapar., 1988). P. heparana is sometimes able to considerably exceed this threshold in some orchards according to the following sources: Tyumeneva (1937), Savkovskii (1974), Kostyuk (1980), Pralya (1988), Kuznetsov (1994); but the pest is counted mainly together with all orchard pests. Treatments against bud pests and Codling Moth also reduce the P. heparana population density.

Method of map production:

Distribution area in the former USSR was outlined according to the following reference data on the species: Kuznetsov & Martynova (1954), Minder (1959), Fal.kovich (1962), Kostyuk (1974, 1980), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Polyakov et al. (1984), Kutenkova (1986), Kuznetsov (1994), Cherkashin (2002). The species is absent in Middle Asia. High mountains of the Caucasus and desert lands of the Caspian Depression were excluded from the area. North Kazakhstan was included in the area based on Kuznetsov & Martynova (1954) and Kuznetsov (2001). In the North the species can reach the northern border of distribution of deciduous trees, however, we do not know detailed research studies regarding these regions. Therefore the northern border was outlined according to actual sporadic records. In the European part it passes from the border of Finland and the Murmansk Region (Kullberg et al., 2001) through, Ukhta and Ekaterinburg (according to Sedykh (1974) and Kostyuk (1980). In Siberia the species has been found in all southern regions from Tyumen. to Chita according to the following sources: Minder (1959), Kostyuk (1980), Babenko (1982), Prokof.ev (1987), Budashkin & Kostyuk (1994), Kuznetsov (1994, 2001), Dubatolov (2000), Mordkovich et al. (2004). In the Far East the species is known in the Amur, Kamchatka, Sakhalin Regions, Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories, on Kuriles based on the data of Kostyuk (1980), Ermolaev (1988), Kuznetsov (1994, 2001) and Dubatolov (2000). The species probably lives in more northern areas of the Asian part of Russia, but such data is not yet available. In the Far East the area was drawn along the northern border of distribution of deciduous and mixed forests (Barysheva et al., 1992); single records from Kamchatka and southern Kuriles were added to the map as points. The zone of low damage includes Moldova, Ukraine (including Transcarpathis, but excluding northern areas), south of the Central Chernozen area and the Northern Caucasus according to data of Tyumeneva (1937), Galetenko (1960), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Kuznetsov (1994) and Kazantseva et al. (1997). The assumption of Polyakov et al. (1984) that P. heparana is a significant pest in other regions does not correspond to recent literature. The zone of low damage was adjusted along the borders of forest-steppe and steppe zones (Barysheva et al., 1992) and along areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops that were outlined according to Tochenov (1984).

Reference citations:

Babenko Z.S. 1982. Phytophagous insects of fruit and berry plants in forest zone of Ob River Region. Tomsk: Tomsk University. 268 p. (In Russian)
Barysheva Yu.A., Bruk S.I., Dmitriev A.V., Stroev K.V., Sutormin A.I., Shashko D.I., Yagust S.I. 1992. Zones of soil-vegetation types. Geographical Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: Com. Geodesy and cartography of the USSR. 48 p. (In Russian)
Budashkin Yu.I., Kostyuk I.Yu. 1994. To fauna of Microlepidoptera) of Transbaikalia. In: Nekrutenko Yu.P., ed. Lepidoptera of Transbaikalia. Proc. of Daurskii Nature Reserve. V. 2. Kyiv: Institute of zoology of NAN Ukraine. 5-31 p. (In Russian)
Cherkashin V.I., ed. 2002. Federal phytosanitary forecast of the main pests, diseases and weeds for 2002. Moscow: MSKh RF. 54 p. (In Russian)
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 363 p. (In Russian)
Dubatolov V.V. 2000. Tortricidae - Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum. Novosibirsk: Siberian Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, .
Ermolaev V.P. 1988. Tortricidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of agriculture in the Far East. Keys. Vladivostok: Biology and Soil Institute, DO AN SSSR. 65-99 p. (In Russian)
Fal.kovich M.I. 1962. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Leningrad Region. In: Stackelberg A.A., ed. Fauna of Leningrad Region and Karelia. Materials on invertebrate fauna. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 48-80 p. (In Russian)
Galetenko S.M. 1960. Tortricid pests of orchards in Crimea. In: Livshits I.Z., ed. Pests and diseases of fruit and decorative plants. Proc. State Bot. Garden. V. 33. Yalta: Nikitskii State Bot. Garden. 157-192 p. (In Russian)
Kazantseva T.P., Sorokin N.S., Vasil'eva I.A., Dolgova T.M., Martynov A. Ya., Gavrilova E.A., Bakalova G.A., Logvinenko T.S., Bespalova A.P., Chichikhina T.V., Dolaberidze S.D., Artokhin K.S., Makhota V.M. 1997. Prognosis of incident and distribution of pests, diseases of crops, weeds and quarantine objects on the territory of Rostov region in 1997 year and measures of control. Rostov-na-Donu: Yug. 128 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 261-320 p. (In Russian)
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1980. Tortricidae. Issue 10. Tortricinae. In: Dolin V.G., ed. Fauna of Ukraine. V. 15. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 424 p. (In Ukrainian)
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L., Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki), 6(2): 1-190.
Kutenkova N.N. 1986 b. Lepidoptera of the nature reserve Kivach. In: Yakovlev E.B., Uzenbaev S.D., eds. Fauna and ecology of Karelian invertebrates. Petrozavodsk: Karelian branch AN SSSR. 123-158 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 51-234 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I., Martynova E.F. 1954. List of Lepidoptera of Middle Ural River Basin. In: Pavlovskii E.N., ed. Proceedings of ZIN RAS. V. 16. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 321-350 p. (In Russian)
Minder I.F. 1959. Leafrollers damaging fruit crops in Oka bottomland. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 38(1): 98-110. (In Russian)
Mordkovich V.G., Dubatolov V.V., Dubko R.YU., Lyubechanskii I.I., Yashnov V.I., eds. 2004. Biodiversity of Sokhondinskii nature reserve. Arthropods. Novosibirsk-Chita: STSDT. 431 p. (In Russian)
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 6-45 p. (In Russian)
Pralya I.I. 1988. Tortricid pheromone study in orchard protection. In: Sazonov A.P., ed. Insect pheromones and ways of their practical use. Collection of scientific works. Leningrad: VIZR. 74-80 p. (In Russian)
Prokof.ev M.A. 1987. Siberian orchards protection against pests. Moscow: Rossel.khozizdat. 239 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Sedykh K.F. 1974. Animal world of Komi ASSR. Invertebrates. Syktyvkar: Komi Publishing House. 189 p. (In Russian)
Shapar. M.V. 1988. Combined application of pheromone traps for Codling Moth and Dark Fruit-Tree Tortrix in orchard protection. In: Sazonov A.P., ed. Insect pheromones and ways of their practical use. Collection of scientific works. Leningrad: VIZR. 80-87 p. (In Russian)
Tyumeneva V.A. 1937. Tortricidae in orchard of Slavyansk district. In: Ivanov I.F., Rubtsov I.A., eds. Results of research works of VIZR for 1936. Part 2. Pests and diseases of technical and fruit crops. Leningrad: VIZR. 379-383 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map), M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map); I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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