Area of distribution and damage of Pandemis ribeana Hbn.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I. Ovsyannikova & I.Ya. Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The area is shown within the area of industrial cultivation of fruits in the territory of the former USSR. Within the limits of the general area only a zone of low damage was allocated. In this zone the pest has an economic significance with the following economic thresholds: 1% damaged rosettes or 4-10 caterpillars per 100 rosettes before flowering of fruit cultures; 2 caterpillars per 100 ovaries or 3% damaged ovaries after flowering (Dolzhenko, 2004). According to the following sources P. cerasana is sometimes able to considerably exceed this threshold in some orchards: Ol.khovskaya-Burkova (1960; 1973), Savkovskii (1974), Bichina (1978), Kostyuk (1980), Kuznetsov (1994); but the pest is mainly counted together with all orchard pests. Treatments against bud pests and Codling Moth also reduce the P. cerasana population density.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. Within its distribution area the P. cerasana usually has been reported together with P. heparana (except for Komi Republic, Kamchatka, and Kuril Islands). Therefore, the P. heparana map (Ovsyannikova & Grichanov, 2005) was used as a prototype for the P. cerasana area. It corresponds to original and reference data on the species distribution in the former USSR based on the following sources: Tyumeneva (1937), Kuznetsov & Martynova (1954), Minder (1959), Fal.kovich (1962), Kostyuk (1974, 1980), Baryakin (1980), Babenko (1982), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Polyakov et al. (1984), Kutenkova (1986), Ermolaev (1988), Kuznetsov (1994, 2001), Budashkina & Kostyuk (1994), Dubatolov (2000), Kullberg et al. (2001), Mordkovich et al. (2004). The species is absent in Middle Asia. High mountains of the Caucasus and desert lands of the Caspian Depression were excluded from the area. The species probably lives in more northern areas of the Asian part of Russia, but such data are not yet available. The zone of low damage includes forest-steppe and steppe zones of Moldova and Ukraine according to the following sources: Galetenko (1960), Ol.khovskaya-Burkova (1960, 1973), Savkovskii (1976), Bichina et al. (1978), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Kuznetsov (1994); therefore it was adjusted along borders of forest-steppe and steppe zones (Barysheva et al., 1992) and along areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops that have been outlined according to Tochenov (1984). Single records on the species harmfulness (in a complex of leaf roller species) have been reported in Leningrad, Pskov, Ryazan, and Moscow Regions, Latvia and Byelorussia according to Minder (1959), Pralya (1988) and Kuznetsov (1994) but they are not shown on the map. The assumption of Polyakov et al. (1984) that P. heparana is a significant pest in other regions does not correspond to recent literature.

Reference citations:

Babenko Z.S. 1982. Phytophagous insects of fruit and berry plants in forest zone of Ob River Region. Tomsk: Tomsk University. 268 p. (In Russian)
Baryakin A.A. 1980. Attractiveness of synthetic sex pheromone of the Codling Moth for Pandemis ribeana Hb. Byulleten. VIZR (Leningrad), 50: 16-17. (In Russian)
Barysheva Yu.A., Bruk S.I., Dmitriev A.V., Stroev K.V., Sutormin A.I., Shashko D.I., Yagust S.I. 1992. Zones of soil-vegetation types. Geographical Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: Com. Geodesy and cartography of the USSR. 48 p. (In Russian)
Bichina T.I., Konyukhov V.P., Golovatyuk V.N. 1978. Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix and its integrated control. In: Popushoi I.S., ed. New methods in plant protection. Kishinev: SHtiintsa. 24-27 p. (In Russian)
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 363 p. (In Russian)
Dubatolov V.V. 2000. Tortricidae - Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum. Novosibirsk: Siberian Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, .
Ermolaev V.P. 1988. Tortricidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of agriculture in the Far East. Keys. Vladivostok: Biology and Soil Institute, DO AN SSSR. 65-99 p. (In Russian)
Fal.kovich M.I. 1962. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Leningrad Region. In: Stackelberg A.A., ed. Fauna of Leningrad Region and Karelia. Materials on invertebrate fauna. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR. 48-80 p. (In Russian)
Galetenko S.M. 1960. Tortricid pests of orchards in Crimea. In: Livshits I.Z., ed. Pests and diseases of fruit and decorative plants. Proc. State Bot. Garden. V. 33. Yalta: Nikitskii State Bot. Garden. 157-192 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. M ap of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 261-320 p. (In Russian)
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1980. Tortricidae. Issue 10. Tortricinae. In: Dolin V.G., ed. Fauna of Ukraine. V. 15. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 424 p. (In Ukrainian)
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L., Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki), 6(2): 1-190.
Kutenkova N.N. 1986b. Lepidoptera of the nature reserve "Kivach". In: Yakovlev E.B., Uzenbaev S.D., eds. Fauna and ecology of Karelian invertebrates. Petrozavodsk: Karelian branch AN SSSR. 123-158 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I., Martynova E.F. 1954. List of Lepidoptera of Middle Ural River Basin. In: Pavlovskii E.N., ed. Proceedings of ZIN RAS. V. 16. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 321-350 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 51-234 p. (In Russian)
Minder I.F. 1959. Leaf rollers damaging fruit crops in Oka bottomland. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 38(1): 98-110. (In Russian)
Mordkovich V.G., Dubatolov V.V., Dubko R.Yu., Lyubechanskii I.I., Yashnov V.I., eds. 2004. Biodiversity of Sokhondinskii nature reserve. Arthropods. Novosibirsk-Chita: STSDT. 431 p. (In Russian)
Ol.khovskaya-Burkova A.K. 1960. Spilonota ocellana and Pandemis cerasana - pests of fruit trees in Cherkasy Region. In: Anonymous, ed. Collection of Scientific Works. V. 12. Kiev: State Publishing House of Agr. Lit. UkrSSR. 288-293 p. (In Russian)
Ol.khovskaya-Burkova A.K. 1973. Development and harmfulness of Pandemis cerasana and Adoxophyes orana. In: Rozinskii M.A., ed. Forecasting and timing of pests and diseases control in perennial plantations and vegetable crops (Abstract of Conference, November, 1973). Kishinev: NTO s-kh. MoldSSR. 37-40 p. (In Russian)
Ovsyannikova E.I., Grichanov I.YA. 2005. Area of distribution and damage of Pandemis heparana Den. et Schiff. St. Petersburg: VIZR, VIR, SPbU., .
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 6-45 p. (In Russian)
Pralya I.I. 1988. Tortricid pheromone study in orchard protection. In: Sazonov A.P., ed. Insect pheromones and ways of their practical use. Collection of scientific works. Leningrad: VIZR. 74-80 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 260 p. (In Russian)
Tyumeneva V.A. 1937. Tortricidae in orchard of Slavyansk district. In: Ivanov I.F., Rubtsov I.A., eds. Results of research works of VIZR for 1936. Part 2. Pests and diseases of technical and fruit crops. Leningrad: VIZR. 379-383 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map), M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map); I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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