Area of distribution and damage of Panonychus ulmi Koch

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist - G.E. David'yan,
GIS-specialist - M.I. Saulich

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of a map with scale 1:33 000 000 and on the basis of information taken from literature.


.Alber.s Equal Area Conic for the USSR., 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Within the area of distribution only a zone of low damage was established according to the extent of damage to fruit crops. The threshold of harmfulness of P. ulmi on most of fruiters before buds blossom in March is 100-200 eggs per 1 meter of twigs; or 300-400 post-embryonic mites per 100 leaves during the blossoming period; or 700 specimens per 100 leaves at the time of fruit ripening. Within the zone of low damage the harmfulness of P. ulmi does not reach more than 2 points under the 5-points scale of harmfulness. Perhaps the suggestion about the harmfulness level near 5 points under the 5-points scale of harmfulness is a mistake. The following sources were used to determine the contents of this section: Bondarenko (1965), Livshits & Mitrofanov (1984).

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. The map of the area is based on the following publications: Bagdasaryan (1957), Reck (1959), Bondarenko (1965), Livshits (1967), Vasil'ev (1973), Mitrofanov et al. (1987), Prokof'ev (1987). The area includes Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Byelorussia, Moldova, Ukraine, European part of Russia, SE of West Siberia, Khabarovskii and Primorskii Territories, the Caucasus, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In the European part of the former USSR the northern border of the area passes through Petrozavodsk, Vologda, Nizhnii Novgorod, Kazan. Southern border of the low damage zone coincides with the northern border of forest-steppe zone and passes through Vladimir-Volynskii, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Putivl', Kursk, Lipetsk, Tambov; the northern borders of low damage zone coincide with the northern border of the area (Bondarenko, 1965). The P. ulmi low damage zone south of the northern border of forest-steppe zone also includes some humid territories of West Ukraine, Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, foothills of Stavropol Territory, and the Far East according to the following sources: Bondarenko (1965), Livshits (1967), Vasil'ev (1973).

Reference citations:

Bagdasaryan A.T. 1957. Fauna of the Armenian SSR. Tetranychid mites (Superfamily Tetranychoidea). Yerevan: AN Armenian SSR. 163 p. (In Russian)
Bondarenko I.V. 1965. To the problem on Panonychus ulmi Koch geographical distribution. Proceeding of Leningrad SKHI. Plant protection against pests and diseases. Leningrad: Leningrad SKHI. V. 95: 84-89. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Livshits I.Z. 1967. Morphological and biological peculiaritis of Panonychus ulmi Koch, 1836 and Schizotetranychus pruni Oudemans, 1931. Pests and diseases of fruiters and plants. Proceedings of the Nikitskii Bot. Garden. Yalta: Nikitskii Bot. Garden. V. 39: 73-110. (In Russian)
Livshits I.Z., Mitrofanov V.I. 1984. Order Acariformes. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Keys to harmful and useful insects and mites on the fruiters and berry crops in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 288 p. (In Russian)
Mitrofanov V.I., Strunkova Z.I., Livshits I.Z. 1987. Keys to the tetranychid mites (Tetranychidae, Bryobiidae) fauna of the USSR and adjacent countries. Dushanbe: Donish. 224 p. (In Russian)
Prokof'ev M.A. 1987. Siberian orchards protection against pests. Moscow: Rossel.khozizdat. 239 p. (In Russian)
Reck G.F. 1959. Keys to tetranychid mites. Tbilisi: AN Georgian SSR. 151 p. (In Russian)
Sazonov A.P., Burov V.N., Sundukova N.E., Mokrousova E.P., Kolesova D.A., Zolotov L.A., Voinyak V.I., Pristavko V.P., Chernii A.M., Petrushova N.I., Medvedeva G.M., Matvievskii A.S., Maksimova V.I., Atanov N.M., Gummel R.M. 1991. Technology of practical application of biologically active compounds in the IPM on fruit and vegetable cultures against pests (recommendations). Moscow: VASKHNIL. 32 p. (In Russian)
Vasil'ev V.P., ed. 1973. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 1. Kiev: Urozhai. 496 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 - G.E. David'yan & M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map, description), A.T. Bagdasaryan (picture).

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