Area of distribution and damage of Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I.Ovsyannikova & I.Ya.Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open published literature and maps of scale 1:33 000 000


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map. Area and zone of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

Within the limits of the P. blancardella area in the USSR territory, the zone of low damage is allocated where the pest has economic significance. Economic threshold has been proposed for the pest at 1-2 mines per leaf after flowering of fruiters (EPPO Standards, 1999). P. blancardella together with other mining moths may cause significant damage (Kuznetsov, 1999).

Method of map production:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published materials. Malus domestica Borkh. is the most economically significant culture among food plants for the Spotted Tentiform Leaf Miner. Consequently, it's area is drawn on the basis of vector map of a zone of distribution of apple tree compiled by N.V.Terekhina (2004), following literature data on the P. blancardella distribution (Lobov, 1971; Leivategiya, 1979; Polyakov et al., 1984; Gershenzon & Kholchenkov, 1974; Kuznetsov, 1981, 1999; Ivinskis & Pakal.nishkis, 1984; Kryukova, 2004; etc.). Reference books marked the species distribution in all territories of the European part of the USSR (except for the north and east), from the border of Finland and Leningrad Region (Kullberg et al., 2001) to Transcaucasia (Arakelyan & Saakyan, 1975; Bagdavadze, 1963) and Ural (Kuznetsov, 1999). Records of the species in Siberia and the Far East of Russia (Lobov, 1971; Polyakov et al., 1984) belong to other species of the genus (Kuznetsov, 1999). The zone of P. blancardella low damage includes Baltic States, Byelorussia, Ukraine, Russia (from Voronezh Region to Northern Caucasus), and Transcaucasia (except high mountains) within the limits of the zone of industrial cultivation of apple trees after N.V.Terekhina's vector map, 2004 (Batiashvili, 1965; Gershenzon & Kholchenkov, 1974; Bolotnikova et al., 1979).

Reference citations:

Arakelyan A.O. & Saakyan Z.A. 1975. To biology of Phyllonorycter turanica and Phyllonorycter blancardella and to their control in northeastern Armenia. In: Mamedova S.R., ed. Materials of 7th session of Transcaucasian board on coordination of research works on plant protection. Kirovabad: NIIZR AzerbSSR, p.69-71 (in Russian).
Bagdavadze A.I. 1963. Study of Lithocolletis blancardella F. . pest of fruiters on East Georgia. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 42(9): 1412-1413 (in Russian).
Batiashvili I.D. 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba, 336 p. (in Russian).
Bolotnikova V.V. & Kurbyko L.M. 1975. To species composition of mining moths in apple orchards of Byelorussia. In: Ambrosov A.P., ed. Materials of republican conference on plant protection. Minsk: BelNIIZR, p. 116-117 (in Russian).
Bolotnikova V.V., Kurbyko L.M. & Yushkevich R.K. 1979. To biology of mining moths damaging fruit plantations in Byelorussia. In: Lopatin I.K., ed. Fauna and ecology of insects of Byelorussia. Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika, p. 19-21 (in Russian).
EPPO Standards. Guidelines on good plant protection practice. Pome fruits. PP 2/18 (1). English (First approved in September 1999). Http://
Gershenzon Z.S. & Kholchenkov V.A. 1974. Family Lithocolletidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. .236-244 (in Russian).
Ivinskis P.P. & Pakal.nishkis S.A. 1984. Microlepidoptera of Lithuanian SSR (5). Trudy AN Litovskoi SSR, Seriya biologicheskie nauki 1(84): 26-36 (in Russian).
Kryukova A.V. 2004. Mining moths . pests of apple trees in Northwest of Russia and bioecological basis for their control. PhD Thesis. St. Petersburg-Pushkin: VIZR, 16 p. (in Russian).
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L.,Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki) 6(2): 1-190.
Kuznetsov V.I. 1981. Gracillariidae. In: Medvedev G.S., ed. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. V. 4(2). Leningrad: Nauka, p. 149-311 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov V.I. 1999. Gracillariidae (Lithocolletidae). In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites . pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(2). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka: 9-46 (in Russian).
Leivategiya L.K. 1979. Phyllonorycter blancardella in orchards of Estonian SSR. In: Kononuchenko L.S. & Leiko T.A., eds. Ways of further perfection of plant protection in Byelorussia and Baltic republics. Abstracts of Research-and-production conference (Minsks, February, 27-28, 1979). Part 2, Minsk: BelNIINTIiTEI, p.53-54 (in Russian).
Lobov A.S. 1971. Action of temperature and moisture on formation of wintering pupae of Lithocolletis blancardella F.(Lepidoptera, Cracillariidae). In: Palii V.F., ed. Trudy VNIIZR, v.1. Voronezh: knizhn. Izd-vo, p. 187-196 (in Russian).
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M. & Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos: 6-45 (in Russian).
Rasinya B. 1981. Lithocolletis blancardella F. in apple plantations of Lithuanian SSR. In: Onaitis A.P., ed. Plant protection in Baltic republics and Byelorussia. Abstracts of Research-and-production conference. Dotnuva, July2-3, 1981, p. 3. Vil.nyus: Institut botaniki AN LitSSR, p.86-87 (in Russian).
Terekhina N.V. 2004. Area of apple. Http://

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2007 © E.I.Ovsyannikova, I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I.Saulich (VIZR, vector map); I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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