Area of distribution and damage of Plutella xylostella (L.)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I.Ovsyannikova & I.Ya.Grichanov, GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

It is created on information taken from the open-published literature and maps of scale 1:33 000 000


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map consisting of 3 layers. Area and zones of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

Within the general area in the Former USSR 2 zones are allocated, i.e., zones of moderate and low damage. In the zone of moderate damage the number of Plutella xylostella caterpillars exceeds 2-5 individuals per plant in a phase of whorl formation under favorable weather conditions for oviposition and caterpillars hatching, and it exceeds 5-10 individuals per plant in a phase of head setting. In the zone of low damage the number periodically (to 2 times for a decade) reaches economic threshold, which is 2 caterpillars per plant in a phase whorl formation, and 5 individuals per plant in a phase of head setting (Sazonov et al., 1991; Vytskii & Asyakin, 1986). In practice Plutella xylostella is accounted together with the Cabbage White (Pieris brassicae L.) and the Small White (Pieris rapae L.) and other lepidopteran pests of cruciferous and vegetable cultures in the majority of regions.

Procedure of map drawing:

The map is compiled by results of the analysis of the open published cartographical materials and literature. Area of Plutella xylostella distribution in the European part is drawn along border of tundra and taiga on the basis of literature data (Gusev, 1959; Dzholova, 1965; Gershenzon, 1974; Provorotova, 1977; Kadamshoev, 1986; Chistyakov, 1988; Zagulyaev, 1994) and of map by Hill, 1978. In Siberia and the Far East the northern border of the area is extrapolated and is also drawn along border of tundra (or mountain tundra) and taiga having important biogeographical value (Gorodkov, 1992); thus the area corresponds to the literature data on the species distribution (Belikova, 1955; Gusev, 1959; Provorotova, 1977; Berim & Samsonova, 1987; Prokof.eva, 1987; Bagachanova, 1999). Taiga tracts of Northeast Yakutia and northern Magadan Region are separated by continuous and wide strip of mountain tundra and they are not included in the area. The zone of moderate damage is outlined after the data and reports of authors of the applied literature (see Sources of the data) on 2nd-4th instar caterpillars. maximal harming activity under comparatively dry and warm weather (Marsh, 1917; Reikhard, 1919; Belikova, 1955; Berim & Samsonova, 1987; Makarova i dr., 1990; Berger, 1991) taking into account areas of industrial cultivation of cabbage (Lizgunova, 1965) and vegetable cultures (Tochenov et al., 1984). It has been drawn along generalized borders of forest-steppe and forest belts (in the North) and of steppe and desert belts (in the South). The same soil-vegetation zones have been used as a basis for delineation of the zone in mountain regions of the Caucasus, Middle Asia, and southern Siberia (Barysheva et al., 1992). Within the limits of Amur Region, Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories the distribution of meadow-chernozem soils in mixed forests and meadows (to lower Amur river) has been taken into consideration (Barysheva i dr., 1992; Chikov, 1976) taking into account areas of cabbage (Lizgunova, 1965) and observation data (Belikova, 1955; Berim & Samsonova, 1987; et al.). The zone of low damage coincides with the areas of cabbage that have not been included into the zone of moderate damage (Chesnokov, 1936; Gusev, 1959; Dzholova, 1965; Gershenzon, 1974; Provorotova, 1977; Chistyakov, 1988; Berger & Burov, 1991; Berger, 1994; Ovsyannikova & Grichanov, I.Ya., 1995).

Sources of the data:

Bagachanova, A.K. 1999. The fauna and ecology of the syrphids (Diptera, Syrphidae) of Yakutia. Yakutsk Research Center.
Barysheva, Yu.A., Bruk, S.I., Dmitriev, A.V. et al. 1992. Zones of vegetation types. In: Geographical atlas of the USSR. Moscow: Com. Geodesy and cartography of the USSR, p.6 (in Russian).
Belikova, N.P. 1955. Some data on ecology of Plutella xylostella in Primorskii Territory. In: Bykov, V.T., ed. Reports of the Far Eastern branch of AS USSR. V. 8, Vladivostok, p. 70-74 (in Russian).
Berger, L.P. 1991. Role of meteorological factors in population dynamics of Plutella maculipennis on periphery of its area. In: Shevchenko, A.A. & Gladysh, O.T., eds. Abstracts of Conf: Agrometeorol. resources and production processes in agriculture. Kiev: UkrNIPTI Agroresursy, p. 130-135 (in Russian).
Berger, L.P. 1994. New methods of account and timing in optimization of protective actions against Plutella maculipennis in Leningrad Region. In: Novozhilov, K.V., ed. Bulletin VIZR. St.Petersburg: VIZR, N 77, p. 25-31 (in Russian).
Berger, L.P. & Burov, V.N. 1991. Plutella maculipennis: new methods of account and timing. Zashchita rastenii 6: p. 21-22 (in Russian).
Berim, N.G. & Samsonova, I.V. 1987. Influence of weather conditions on development of Plutella xylostella in the Amur Region. In: Gorbunov, N.N., Fisechko R.N., & Chelyaev, S.D., eds. Pests of agricultural crops in Siberia (the scientific and technical bulletin). V. 15. Novosibirsk, p. 40-45 (in Russian).
Chesnokov, P.G. 1936. Distribution and economic significance of pests of foliage of cruciferous cultures. Leningrad: VASKHNIL, VIZR, 90 p. (in Russian).
Chikov, P.S., ed. 1976. Atlas of areas and resources of herbs of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK, 340 p. (in Russian).
Chistyakov, Yu.A. 1988. Family Plutellidae. In: Kirpichnikova, V.A. & Ler, P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of the Far Eastern agriculture. Keys. Vladivostok: DVO AN SSSR, p. 53-55 (in Russian).
D.yakonov, A.M. & Kozhanchikov, I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii, E.N. & Shtakelberg, A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, p. 22-43 (in Russian).
Dzholova, N.G. 1965. Insect pests of vegetable crops in Baikal region. Moscow: Nauka, 80 p. (in Russian).
Gershenzon, Z.S. 1974. Family Plutellidae. In: Vasil.ev, V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai, p. 231-233 (in Russian).
Gorodkov, K.V. 1992. Biogeographical significance of border between taiga and tundra. In: Rikhter, V.A & Zlobin, V.V., eds. Advantages of entomology in the USSR. Diptera: systematics, ecology, medical and veterinary importance.Leningrad: ZIN, VEO, p. 22-24 (in Russian).
Gusev, G.V. 1959. Insect pests of field and vegetable cultures in Sakhalin. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 38(5): 702-712 (in Russian).
Hill, D. 1978. Agricultural insect pests of temperate regions and their control. Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press. 650 p.
Kadamshoev, M. 1986. Species composition and distribution of pests of vegetables, melons and gourds in areas of the Western Pamirs. In: V.I. Chikatunov, ed. Fauna, ecology and zoogeography of Pamirs. Dushanbe: Donish, p. 36-49 (in Russian).
Kharchenko, N.N., Osipov, V.G., Kustova, A.I. et al. 1975. Pests and diseases of vegetable cultures. In: Dorozhkin N.A., ed. Plant protection against pests, diseases, and weeds in Byelorussia. Recommendations. Minsk: Urozhai, 223 p. (in Russian).
Lizgunova, T.V. 1965. Cabbage. Leningrad: Kolos, 384 p. (in Russian).
Makarova, L.A., Doronina, G.M., & Berger, L.P. 1990. Synoptic grounds of mass outbreaks of Plutella maculipennis. Zashchita rastenii 12: p. 43-44 (in Russian).
Marsh H.O. Life history of Plutella maculipennis, the diamond-back moth // Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington, V. X, N 1, 1917. 9 p.
Ovsyannikova, E.I. & Grichanov, I.Ya. 1995. Field testing of pheromones for monitoring of Plutella maculipennis. In: All-Russian Congr. on Plant Prot., Abstracts. St. Petersburg, Dec. 1995, p. 72 (in Russian).
Prokof.eva, N.A. 1987. Plutella xylostella in Altai Territory. In: Cherepanov, A.I., ed. Ecology and geography of arthropods of Siberia. Novosibirsk: Nauka, p. 186-188 (in Russian).
Provorotova, G.M. 1977. Insect pests of cabbage in Krasnoyarsk Territory. In: S.A. Kulik, ed. Fauna and ecology of Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Irkutsk: Irkutsk University: p. 172-180 (in Russian).
Sazonov, A.P., Burov, V.N., Sundukova, N.E., Mokrousova, E.P., Kolesova, D.A., Zolotov, L.A., Voinyak, V.I., Pristavko, V.P., Chernii, A.M., Petrushova, N.I., Medvedeva, G.M., Matvievskii, A.S., Maksimova, V.I., Atanov, N.M. & Gummel, R.M. 1991. Technology of practical application of biologically active compounds in the IPM on fruit and vegetable cultures against pests (recommendations). Moscow: VASKHNIL, 32 p. (in Russian).
Tochenov, V.V., Markov, V.F., Belyaeva, L.I. et al., eds. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK, 260 p. (in Russian).
Vytskii, V.A. & Asyakin, B.P. 1986. Integrated protection of vegetable cultures against pests, diseases and weeds in open ground (methodical recommendations). Leningrad: VIZR, 44 s. (in Russian).
Zagulyaev, A.K. 1994. Family Plutellidae. In: Kuznetsov, V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St.Petersburg: Nauka, p. 259-265 (in Russian).

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004 © E.I.Ovsyannikova, I.Ya.Grichanov, & M.I.Saulich (VIZR; vector map, description); I.Ya.Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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