Area of distribution and damage of Ptycholoma lecheana L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I. Ovsyannikova & I.Ya. Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from the open-published literature and maps.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Within the limits of the area only a zone of low damage was allocated. Here the pest has an economic significance with the following economic thresholds: 5-8% damaged buds or 3 caterpillars per running meter of branch during the bud blossoming phase; 10-15 caterpillars per 100 rosettes during the red buds phase (Dolzhenko, 2004). P. lecheana is sometimes able to considerably exceed this threshold in some orchards according to the following sources: Tyumeneva (1937), Galetenko (1960), Slavgorodskaya-Kurpieva (1984), Kuznetsov (1994), but the pest is mainly counted together with all orchard pests; treatments against bud pests and Codling Moth also reduce the P. lecheana population density.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. P. lecheana area in the former USSR was outlined according to the following reference and original data on the species distribution: Minder (1959), Galetenko (1960, 1964), Fal.kovich (1962, 1970), Litvinova (1967), Kostyuk (1974, 1980), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Zubov (1986), Khrustaleva (1986), Kuznetsov (1994, 2001), Dubatolov (2000). Reference data testify that the species is distributed north to the border of mixed forests and taiga zone. Nevertheless, literature data on its occurrence in the North is scanty. Therefore, the northern border of the area was drawn from the border between Finland and Karelia (according to Kutenkova (1986) and Kullberg et al. (2001)) along the northern border of industrial cultivation of apple (Terekhina, 2005) east to the Novosibirsk Region. The species is not found in Middle Asia. High mountains of the Caucasus and desert lands of the Caspian Depression were excluded from the area. Northern Kazakhstan was included in the area according to Kostyuk (1980). The northern border of the area in Southern Siberia and the Far East (Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories, Amur and Sakhalin Regions, and Kuril Is., Kunashir and Shikotan) was corrected along the border of mixed forests and taiga zone (Chikov, 1983), which corresponds to the following original indications: Tibatina (1973), Kuznetsov (1973, 1994, 2001), Kostyuk (1980), Ermolaev (1988), Budashkin & Kostyuk (1994), Dubatolov (2000). The zone of low damage includes the forest-steppe zone of Russian Central Chernozem Region and Krasnodar Territory (according to Tyumeneva (1937) and Ryabchinskaya (2002)), mixed, broad-leaved forests and forest-steppe of Ukraine (according to Galetenko (1960, 1964) and Ol.khovskaya-Burkova (1960)) and south of the Far East (Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories, Sakhalin Region) according to the following sources: Shtundyuk & Ablakanova (1969), Kuznetsov (1973), Ermolaev (1988). It was corrected along the borders of mixed, broad-leaved forests and forest-steppe (Barysheva et al., 1992), along areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops (Tochenov, 1984) and apple culture (Terekhina, 2005).

Reference citations:

Barysheva Yu.A., Bruk S.I., Dmitriev A.V., Stroev K.V., Sutormin A.I., Shashko D.I., Yagust S.I. 1992. Zones of soil-vegetation types. Geographical Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: Com. Geodesy and cartography of the USSR. 48 p. (In Russian)
Budashkin Yu.I., Kostyuk I.Yu. 1994. To fauna of Microlepidoptera) of Transbaikalia. In: Nekrutenko Yu.P., ed. Lepidoptera of Transbaikalia. Proc. of Daurskii Nature Reserve. V. 2. Kyiv: Institute of zoology of NAN Ukraine. 5-31 p. (In Russian)
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 363 p. (In Russian)
Dubatolov V.V. 2000. Tortricidae - Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum. Novosibirsk: Siberian Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. Novosibirsk: .
Ermolaev V.P. 1988. Tortricidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of agriculture in the Far East. Keys. Vladivostok: Biology and Soil Institute, DO AN SSSR. 65-99 p. (In Russian)
Fal.kovich M.I. 1962. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Leningrad Region. In: Stackelberg A.A., ed. Fauna of Leningrad Region and Karelia. Materials on invertebrate fauna. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 48-80 p. (In Russian)
Fal.kovich M.I. 1970. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of foothills of Kuznetsk Ala Tau. In: Cherepanov A.I., ed. Fauna of Siberia. Novosibirsk: Biol. Inst AN SSSR. 222-245 p. (In Russian)
Galetenko S.M. 1960. Tortricid pests of orchards in Crimea. In: Livshits I.Z., ed. Pests and diseases of fruit and decorative plants. Proc. State Bot. Garden. V. 33. Yalta: Nikitskii State Bot. Garden. 157-192 p. (In Russian)
Galetenko S.M. 1964. To morphology of fruit leafrollers. In: Kochkin M.A., Rubtsov N.I., Ryndin N.V., eds. 150 years to State Nikitskii botanical garden. Collection of scientific works. V. 37. Moscow: Kolos. 531-395 p. (In Russian)
Khrustaleva V.A., Gokhman V.E. 1986. Results of test of pheromones of some leafroller species in the Botanical garden of the Moscow State University. In: Mottus E.R., Shumakov E.M., eds. 1984. Pheromones for leafrollers - pests of agriculture and forestry. Materials of All-Union conference. V. 2. Kyaeriku; 19-21 Nov. 1984; Tartu: TGU. 294-295 p. (In Russian)
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 261-320 p. (In Russian)
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1980. Tortricidae. Issue 10. Tortricinae. In: Dolin V.G., ed. Fauna of Ukraine. V. 15. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 424 p. (In Ukrainian)
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L., Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki) 6(2): 1-190.
Kutenkova N.N. 1986. Lepidoptera of the nature reserve "Kivach". In: Yakovlev E.B., Uzenbaev S.D., eds. Fauna and ecology of Karelian invertebrates. Petrozavodsk: Karelian branch AN SSSR. 123-158 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1973. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of the South of the Far East and their seasonal cycles. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Lepidoptera of the fauna of the USSR and adjacent countries (Proc. VEO, V. 56). Leningrad: Nauka. 44-161 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 51-234 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 2001. Family Tortricidae (Olethreutidae). In: Ler P.A., ed. Keys to the insects if the Russian Far East. V. 5(3). Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Vladivostok: Dal.nauka. 11-472 p. (In Russian)
Litvinova A.N. 1967. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) - forestry pests in central Byelorussia. In: Zaitseva T.Z., ed. Fauna and ecology of insects of Byelorussia. Minsk: AN Bel. SSR. 64-81 p. (In Russian)
Minder I.F. 1959. Leafrollers damaging fruit crops in Oka bottomland. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 38(1): 98-110. (In Russian)
Ol.khovskaya-Burkova A.K. 1960. To specific structure leafrollers of forest-steppe and steppe zones of Ukraine. In: Anonymous, ed. Collection of proceedings. V. 12. Kiev: Gosizdat s/kh lit. of the Ukrainian SSR. 287-288 p. (In Russian)
Ryabchinskaya T.A. 2002. Ecological bases of apple orchard protection from harmful organisms in conditions of Central Chernozem Region. DSc Thesis. Voronezh: Voronezh Agr. Univ. 46 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Shtundyuk A.V., Ablakanova A.A. 1969. Pests and diseases of fruit-berry cultures and vines in the Far East and their control. Khabarovsk: Khabarovsk Publishing House. 140 p. (In Russian)
Slavgorodskaya-Kurpieva L.E., Babchuk I,V., Shilina O.V. 1984. Recommendations for control of harmful leafrollers in orchards of southern areas of Ukrainian SSR. Kiev: Crimean SKHI. 16 p. (In Russian)
Terekhina N.V. 2005. Area of apple. Russia:
Tibatina I.A. 1973. Leafrollers of leaved forests of Western Siberia. In: Yudin B.S., ed. Fauna of Siberia. V. 2 (Proc. Biol. Inst. of AN SSSR, V. 16). Novosibirsk: Biol. Inst. AN SSSR. 173-181 p. (In Russian)
Tyumeneva V.A. 1937. Tortricidae in orchard of Slavyansk district. In: Ivanov I.F., Rubtsov I.A., eds. Results of research works of VIZR for 1936. Part 2. Pests and diseases of technical and fruit crops. Leningrad: VIZR. 379-383 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)
Zubov A.P. 1986. Activity synthetic pheromones for leafrollers living in oak groves. In: Mottus E.R., Shumakov E.M., eds. Pheromones for leafrollers - pests of agriculture and forestry. Materials of All-Union conference. Kyaeriku; 19-21 Nov. 1984; V. 2. Tartu: TGU. 178-179 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map), M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map,); I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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