Area of distribution and damage of Quadrapidiotus perniciosus (Comst.)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist - G.E. David'yan,
GIS-specialist - M.I. Saulich

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of map with scale 1:33 000 000, on the basis of information taken from literature.


"Alber's Equal Conica for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons. Sporadic distribution points were marked in Irkutsk.

Accuracy of classifier:

Within the area of distribution only a zone of low damage was established according to the extent of damage to fruit crops. Threshold of harmfulness of D. perniciosus on most fruits before buds blossoming is 1 nymph per 2 meters of twigs or 2-3% infested fruits at the time of fruit ripening. In the zone of low damage the maximum harmfulness of D. perniciosus is not more than 2 points (rarely 3 points) under the 5-points scale of harmfulness (Kopaneva et al., 1984).

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. The distribution area for this species was determined according to the following sources: Borkhsenius (1949, 1966), Talitskii (1954), Ryabtseva & Shutova (1954), Vasil'ev (1955, 1973), Batiashvili (1959), Pilipyuk (1971), Danzig (1972), Savkovskii (1976), Fol'kina (1980). The Northern border of the area in the former USSR passes somewhat north of Kiev and Saratov, south of Kursk, and through Orenburg (Danzig, 1972). The area includes Moldavia, most of Ukraine, Rostov Region, the Caucasus, Lower part of Volga Region, Amur Region, Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories, South of Sakhalin, Kuril Islands (Kunashir, Iturup) and foci of D. perniciosus in Irkutsk env., Kazakhstan (Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz Regions), Uzbekistan (Toshkent Region), Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Zone of low damage includes Moldavia, SW Ukraine (Chernivtsi, Odessa, Zakarpatska Regions, part of Ivano-Frankivsk and Vinnytsya Regions, Crimea), the Caucasus, lower part of Volga region, Southern Kazakhstan and pest's foci in Middle Asia. Borders of the zones of damage were based on the following publications: Vasil'ev (1955, 1973), Savkovskii (1976), Fol'kina (1980), Kopaneva (1984). A correction of the pest damage zone was made based on the area of commercial fruit crop production according to the cartographical materials of Tochenov (1984).

Reference citations:

Batiashvili I.D. 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba. 336 p. (In Russian)
Borkhsenius N.S. 1949. Suborder Coccoidea. In: Pavlovskii E.N., Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 231-245 p. (In Russian)
Borkhsenius N.S. 1966. A catalogue of the armoured scale insects (Diaspidoidea) of the world. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 449 p. (In Russian)
Danzig E.M. 1984. Suborder of Coccinea. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Keys to harmful and useful insects and mites on fruit and berry crops in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 288 p. (In Russian)
Fol'kina M.Ya. 1980. Quadrispidiotus perniciosus (Comst.) (Homoptera, Diaspididae) in the South of Chimkent region. The insects of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: Izd. Nauka Kaz. SSR. 24-31 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kryzhanovskii O.L., ed. 1972. Pest insects and mites of agricultural plants. Hemimetabola. V. 1. Leningrad: Nauka. 323 p. (In Russian)
Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, State inspection on plant quarantine of the Russian Federation, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Quarantine. 2003. Reference-book on quarantine phytosanitary state of the Russian Federation for January, 1 2003. Moscow: MSKH RF. 102 p. (In Russian)
Pilipyuk V.I. 1971. San Jose scale in Sakhalin and Kuril Islands. Zashchita rastenii, 7: 43-44. (In Russian)
Ryabtseva N.I., Shutova N.N. 1954. San Jose scale in Tadjikistan and control measures. Stalinabad: Tadjikgosizdat. 38 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Talitskii V.I. 1954. Diaspididae and Coccidae - the pests of fruiters in Moldavia. Kishinev: Gos. Izd. 46 p. (In Russian)
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 260 p. (In Russian)
Vasil'ev V.P. 1955. Pests of orchards. Kiev: AN Ukr. SSR. 265 p. (In Russian)
Vasil'ev V.P., ed. 1973. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 1. Kiev: Urozhai. 496 p. (In Russian)

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Copyright 2004 © G.E. David'yan & M.I. Saulich (vector map, description) and G.E. David'yan (picture).

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