Area of distribution and damage of Spilonota ocellana (Denis & Shiffermueller)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I. Ovsyannikova & I.Ya. Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1:17 000 000 and 1:33 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Within the limits of the general area in the territory of the former USSR only a zone of low damage was allocated. Here the pest has an economic significance with the following economic thresholds: 5-8% damaged buds or 3 caterpillars per running meter before flowering of fruit cultures (during the phase of green tops); 15 caterpillars per 100 rosettes during the phase of red buds (Dolzhenko, 2004). S. ocellana is sometimes able to cause considerable damage to the generative organs in some orchards according to the following sources: Tyumeneva (193), Romanova (1949), Kuznetsov (1994), but the pest is counted mainly together with all orchard pests. Treatments against bud pests and Codling Moth also reduce the S. ocellana population density.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. Its area in the former USSR was outlined according to the following reference data on the species distribution: Romanova (1949), Minder (1959), Galetenko (1960), Fal.kovich (1962), Litvinova (1969), Kostyuk (1974), Polyakov (1984), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Pralya (1992), Kuznetsov (1994, 2001), Dubatolov (2000). Reference data testify that S. ocellana inhabits all of the European part of the USSR (except North), the Urals and South Siberia. Nevertheless, literature data on its occurrence in the North is scanty. Therefore, the northern border of the area was drawn along the border of mixed forests and taiga zone (Chikov, 1983), which corresponds with original indications. The northern border of the area in the European part passes from the Karelian Isthmus (Finland and Leningrad Region) according to Kullberg et al. (2001), along the southern border of taiga zone (Kostyuk, 1974) through Kirov Region (Charushina & Shernin, 1974) toward Middle Ural. In Middle Asia the species is known from Turkmenistan (Krasil.nikova, 1967), Tajikistan according to Sherniyazova (1974) and Miralibekov (1986), Uzbekistan according to Porsaev (1966) and D.yakonov & Kozhanchikov (1949). High mountains of the Caucasus and desert lands of the Caspian Depression and Middle Asia were excluded from the area. The south of Western Kazakhstan was included into the area according to Matesova et al. (1962) and Danilevskii & Kuznetsov (1962). Eastern and Southern Siberia is reported in papers of Vorzheva (1955), Kolmakova (1962), Kostyuk (1974), Prokof.ev (1987), Budashkin (1994) and Kuznetsov (1994, 2001). The species is found in the Far East, e.g., in Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories, Amur and Sakhalin Regions, and on Kuril Islands according to Dubatolov (2000) and Kuznetsov (2001). The zone of low damage includes the steppe and forest steppe zones of Moldova, Ukraine and southern Russia, the Caucasus, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Central Asia, Cis-Baikalia, and the south of the Far East according to the following sources: Tyumeneva (1937), Romanova (1949), Akhundova-Tuaeva & Sidorovnikova (1966), Porsaev (1966), Vorzheva (1955), Polyakov et al. (1984), Matiashvili (1984), Miralibekov (1986), Ermolaev (1988) and Pralya (1992). It was corrected along areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops (Tochenov, 1984) and apple cultures (Terekhina, 2005).

Reference citations:

Akhundova-Tuaeva L.M., Sidorovnikova E.P. 1966. Eye-spotted Bud Moth. In: Karaev A.I., ed. Proceedings. Biology. V. 2. Baku: Azerbaijan University. 28-33 p. (In Russian)
Budashkin Yu.I., Kostyuk I.Yu. 1994. To fauna of Microlepidoptera) of Transbaikalia. In: Nekrutenko Yu.P., ed. Lepidoptera of Transbaikalia. Proc. of Daurskii Nature Reserve. V. 2. Kyiv: Institute of zoology of NAN Ukraine. 5-31 p. (In Russian)
Charushina A.N., Shernin A.I. 1974. Order Lepidoptera. In: Shernin A.I., ed. Fauna of the Kirov Region. V. 2. Kirov: Kirov GPI. 351-477 p. (In Russian)
Chikov P.S., ed. 1983. Atlas of areas and resources of herbs of the USSR. Moscow: VNIILR, BIN, LGU, TGU. 340 p. (In Russian)
D.yakonov A.M., Kozhanchikov I.V. 1949. Lepidoptera. In: Pavlovskii E.N., Shtakelberg A.A., eds. Pest Animals of Middle Asia (handbook). Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 179-198 p. (In Russian)
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 363 p. (In Russian)
Dubatolov V.V. 2000. Tortricidae - Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum. Siberian Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. Novosibirsk: .
Ermolaev V.P. 1988. Tortricidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of agriculture in the Far East. Keys. Vladivostok: Biology and Soil Institute, DO AN SSSR. 65-99 p. (In Russian)
Fal.kovich M.I. 1962. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Leningrad Region. In: Stackelberg A.A., ed. Fauna of Leningrad Region and Karelia. Materials on invertebrate fauna. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 48-80 p. (In Russian)
Galetenko S.M. 1960. Tortricid pests of orchards in Crimea. In: Livshits I.Z., ed. Pests and diseases of fruit and decorative plants. Proc. State Bot. Garden. V. 33. Yalta: Nikitskii State Bot. Garden. 157-192 p. (In Russian)
Kolmakova V.D. 1962. Lepidopteran pests of fruit-berry plants in Transbaikalia. In: V.O.Bolbaduev ed. Pests of forest and fruit-berry cultures in Transbaikalia. Ulan-Ude: Buryatskii kompleksnyi NII. 96-135 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1966. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) of Crimea. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 14(8): 1175-1186. (In Russian)
Kostyuk Yu.A. 1974. Family Tortricidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 261-320 p. (In Russian)
Krasil.nikova G.A. 1967. Review of Lepidoptera damaging fruiters in SW Turkmenistan. In: Mizgireva O.F., ed. Proc. Turkmen. Res. Station VIR. Issue 4. Ashkhabad: VIR. 223-273 p. (In Russian)
Kullberg J., Albrecht A., Kaila L.,Varis V. 2001. Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera - Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia (Helsinki) 6(2): 1-190.
Kuznetsov V.I. 1994. Family Tortricidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 51-234 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I. 2001. Family Tortricidae (Olethreutidae). In: Ler P.A., ed. Keys to the insects if the Russian Far East. V. 5(3). Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Vladivostok: Dal.nauka. 11-472 p. (In Russian)
Kuznetsov V.I., Martynova E.F. 1954. List of Lepidoptera of Middle Ural River Basin. In: Pavlovskii E.N., ed. Proceedings of ZIN RAS. V. 16. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 321-350 p. (In Russian)
Matesova G.Ya., Mityaev I.D. Yukhnevich L.A. 1962. Review of insects damaging fruit and berry cultures and grape-vine in Southwest Kazakhstan. In: Marikovskii P.I., ed. Materials on study of insects of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: AN Kaz. SSR. 3-46 p. (In Russian)
Matiashvili M. 1967. Some questions on biology and ecology of Tmetocera ocellana F. In: Azaryan G.Kh., ed. Materials of session of Transcaucasian council on coordination of research works in plant protection. Erevan. 295-301 p. (In Russian)
Minder I.F. 1959. Leafrollers damaging fruit crops in Oka bottomland. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 38(1): 98-110. (In Russian)
Miralibekov N. 1986. Ecological and faunistic review of insects - pests of fruit crops in the Western Pamirs. In: Chikatunov V.I., ed. Fauna, ecology and zoogeography of Pamirs. Dushanbe: Donish. 50-55 p. (In Russian)
Ol.khovskaya-Burkova A.K. 1960. Spilonota ocellana and Pandemis cerasana - pests of fruit trees in Cherkasy Region. In: Anonymous, ed. Collection of Scientific Works. V. 12. Kiev: State Publishing House of Agr. Lit. UkrSSR. 288-293 p. (In Russian)
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 6-45 p. (In Russian)
Porsaev M. 1966. Pests of stone fruits in Samarkand Region. PhD Thesis. Kiev: UkrSKhA. 15 p. (In Russian)
Pralya I.I. 1992. Biological basis for a modern system of actions for aple gardens protection against a complex of leafrollers. DSc Thesis. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 41 p. (In Russian)
Prokof.ev M.A. 1987. Siberian orchards protection against pests. Moscow: Rossel.khozizdat. 239 p. (In Russian)
Romanova V.P. 1949. Leafrollers and their parasites on forest treeas in environs of Rostov-na-Donu. In: Proc. Biol. Inst. V. 15(6). Rostov-na-Donu: Rostov Univ. 47-61 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Sherniyazova R.M. 1974. Tortricidae, Lepidoptera of trees and bushes in Varzob Gorge (Tajikistan). Izvestiya AN TadzhikSSR. Biol. n. (Dushanbe) 54(1): 48-53. (In Russian)
Terekhina N.V. 2005. Area of apple. Russia:
Tyumeneva V.A. 1937. Tortricidae in orchard of Slavyansk district. In: Ivanov I.F., Rubtsov I.A., eds. Results of research works of VIZR for 1936. Part 2. Pests and diseases of technical and fruit crops. Leningrad: VIZR. 379-383 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)
Vorzheva L.V. 1955. Tmetocera ocellana F. as a mass pest of fruiters in eastern Siberia. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 34(1): 140-146. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I. Saulich (VIZR, vector map,); I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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