Area of distribution and damage of Sus scrofa Linnaeus

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist M.I.Saulich,
GIS-specialist M.I.Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Maps and skeleton maps of scale 1:3 500 000-8 000 000; 1:10 000 000-25 000 000; 1:40 000 000-50 000 000; 90 000 000-150 000 000 were used, as well as other information data taken from scientific publications.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

It is a vector map consisting of three layers. Dots and polygons show area of distribution; zones of damage are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of the classifier:

The pest damage zones cover the territories where the Wild Boar numbers are high enough for damaging pastures, crops, melon plantations, and vegetable gardens. The permissible number per 1000 hectares of forests, varying by region, serves as a criterion (Ivanov, Varnakov, 1986; Zanulaiitis, Padaiiga, 1984; Rosete-Pidal., 2004). The average numbers of wild boars are above 12 individuals per 1000 hectares of forests in the pest moderate damage zone and 6-12 individuals / 1000 hectares of forests in the pest low damage zone.

Method of map production:

Since the second half of the twentieth century, the Wild Boar has expanded its area as a consequence of natural and artificial spreading, development of the hunting economy, increase of the areas under agricultural lands. Danilkin.s opinion is that this species restores its historical area (Danilkin, 2002). The map is composed as a result of the cartographic data analysis: Flint et al. (1970), Pavlinov et al. (2002), Bobrinskii et al. (1965), Danilkin (2002), and others. The generalized areas give no enough information about true mosaic distribution of wild boars in the area periphery and in deserted zones. Designing a map, more data are possible to receive using the cartographic data taken from publications and characterizing the Wild Boar distribution in different regions, such as the North-West of the Former USSR territory (Vereschagin , Rusakov, 1979; Rusakov, Timofeeva, 1984), the South of the Far East (Bromleii, Kucherenko, 1983), the South of Siberia (Sokolkv, 1979), the forests of country between Volga and Kama rivers (Pavlov, 2004). In the limits of Kazakhstan, detailed elaboration of the area is carried out according to the cartographic data of Sludskii et al. (1984). The pest damage zones are basically determined after the publications of Ovsukova (1996); zoning the Wild Boar area for the Russian territory is carried out on the basis of the information about resources of this species in 1991-1995 years. Correction is executed with use of latest data concerning the Tula Region (Cherenkov, 2004), the Volga-Akhtuba flood-lands (Litvinov, 2004), the lowers of Dnestr in Moldova (Muntyany, Korchmar., Savin, 2004), and Amur region (Serebrennikov, Kirichenko, 2004). The pest moderate damage zone covers the territories around Kara-Kum Canal in Turkmenistan and the delta of Amu Darya along the boundary with Uzbekistan; also Tien Shan, excluding high mountains, more than 2000 m above sea level. The pest low damage zone includes Lithuania, the major part of Belarus, the forest-steppe part of Ukraine, the central and eastern parts of Ciscaucasia. Besides, this zone includes possibly a number of regions of the Russian Federation, i.e., Kaliningrad, Saratov, Rostov, Voronezh, Belgorod, Kursk, Penza, and districts of some adjacent regions.

Reference citations:

Bobrinskii N.A., Kuznetsov B.A., Kuzyakin A.P. 1965. Keys to Mammals of the USSR. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 382 p. (in Russian).
Bromleii G.F., Kucherenko S.P. 1983. Ungulate animals of the USSR Far East. In: Nasimovich A.A., ed. Мoscow: "Nauka", 304 p. (in Russian).
Cherenkov A.Yu. 2004. Distribution of wild boar numbers in the Tula region. In: Vestnik RGAZU. Moscow: Ros. gos. agrar. zaoch. universitet, p. 84-85 (in Russian).
Flint V.E., Chugunov Yu.D., Smirin V.M. 1970. Mammals of the USSR. In: Formozov A.N., ed. Moscow: Mysl., 437 p. (in Russian).
Danilkin A.A. 2002. Pigs (Suidae). Mammals of Russia and adjacent countries. Мoscow: GEOS, 309 p. (in Russian).
Ivanova G.I., Varnakov A.P. 1986. Recommendations on prevention of damage caused by wild boars to agriculture. Moscow: Tsentral.naya nauchno-issledovatel.skaya laboratoriya okhotnich.ego kxozyaiistva i zapovednikov, 14 p. (in Russian).
Litvinov V.P. 2004. Numbers of hunting mammal species in hunting economies and national reserves of Volga-Akhtuba flood-lands. In: Man and animals. Astrakhan.. p. 95-97 (in Russian).
Muntyany A., Korchmar. N., Savin A. 2004. Integrated management of Dnestr trans-boundary basin natural resources. In: State of hunting fauna development in the zone of Dnestr. Kishinev. p. 218-220 (in Russian).
Ovsukova N.E. 1996. Wild boar. In: Resources of the Russia main hunting animal species and hunting lands (1991-1995). Moscow. p. 77-78 (in Russian).
Pavlinov I.Ya., Kruskop S.V., Varshavskii A.A. & Borisenko A.V. 2002. Land animals of Russia. In: E.A. Dunaev & K.G. Mikhailov, eds. Manual-Identification book. Moscow: KMK, 298 p. (in Russian).
Pavlov M.P. 2004. Wild boars in taiga forests of Vyatka region. Vestnik okhotovedeniya 1, №1: 77-80 (in Russian).
Rosete-Pidal. A. 2004. Influence of Wild boar on forest cenosis. In: Anonym., ed. Proceedings of RGAZY. Moscow. p.133-135 (in Russian).
Rusakov O.S., Timofeeva E.K. 1984. Wild boar (ecology, resources, economic significance in the USSR North-West). In: Vereschagin N.K., Smirnov P.K., eds. Leningrad: Izdatel.ctvo Leningradskogo universiteta, 207 p. (in Russian).
Serebrennikov V.I., Kirichenko Yu.M. 2004. Biological resources of hunting economy in the Amur region: condition, use, protection. In: Problems of ecology and rational use of natural resources in the Far East region. V. 1. Blagoveshchensk. p. 217-222 (in Russian).
Sludskii A.A., Baiidavletov R.Zh., Bekenov A., Zhiryakov V.A., Pole V.B., Fadeev V.A., Fedocenko A.K., 1984. Mammalians of Kazakhstan. V.3, part.4. Artiodactila (Cervidae, Moschidae, Suidae) and Perissodactila (Equidae). In: Gvozdev E.V. and Strautman E.I., eds. Alma-Ata: .Nauka. Kazakh SSR, 232 p. (in Russian).
Sokolov G.A. 1979. Mammalians of Siberia cedar forests. In: Bol.shakov N.V., Petrenko E.S., eds. Novosibirsk: .Nauka., 256 p. (in Russian).
Vereschagin N.K., Rusakov O.S. 1979. Ungulate animals of the USSR North-West (resources, life history and economic utilization). In: Strelkov A.A., Strelkov P.P., eds. Leningrad: "Nauka", 309 p. (in Russian).
Zanulaiitis Z. Padaiiga V. 1984. Rational use of wild boar population in the South Baltic. Kaunas: Litovskii nauchno-issledovatel.skii institut lesnogo xozyaistva Gosleskhoza SSSR, 8 p. (in Russian).

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