Area of distribution and damage of Yponomeuta padellus L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists E.I. Ovsyannikova & I.Ya. Grichanov,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000 and 1: 35 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zone of pest damage is shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The area is shown within the area of industrial cultivation of fruits in the territory of the former USSR. Within the limits of the general area only a zone of low damage was allocated. In this area the pest has economic significance. A thorough investigation of the harmful activity of this species has not been carried out. Due to the similarity of the biology and ecology of Y. malinellus and Y. padellus it is possible to use the economic thresholds for Y. malinellus as follows: 0.5-1 shield per running meter of tree branches before buds blossom or 10-25% damaged leaves before flowering or 3-5 nests per tree after flowering (Dolzhenko, 2004). In the absence of treatments against the complex of spring lepidopteran pests, the Y. padellus population is sometimes able to exceed these thresholds in some industrial orchards according to Petrov (1958) and Kurbanova (1967), but the pest is mainly limited by the control measures that are used against all early spring orchard pests. Treatments against the complex of lepidopteran pests also reduce Y. padellus population density.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. If data were on the Oblast-level, distribution is on the Oblast level. In some cases, Oblast.s are further refined by boundaries of the Arable Land Map (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. The map was compiled according to the results of the analysis of open published materials and maps. Maps compiled by Petrov (1958, Figs. 1-5) were taken as prototypes and he has noted that areas of Y. malinellus and Y. padellus coincide within the former USSR. The area of Y. padellus in the European part of the former USSR was determined according to the following sources: Slavgorodskaya-Kurpieva (1969), Charushina & Shernin (1974), Savkovskii (1976), Gershenzon (1974a, 1974b, 1986), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Ionaitis (1984), Sinev (1994), Gershenson & Ulenberg (1998); in the Caucasus and Transcaucasia according to Kurbanova (1957) and Gershenson & Ulenberg (1998); in Kazakhstan, except the north-west, according to Matesova et al. (1962) and Prokof.ev (1987); in Middle Asia according to Petrov (1958), Aleshev et al. (1964), Porsaev (1966), Krasil.nikova (1967), Miralibekov (1986) and Gershenson & Ulenberg (1998). High mountains were excluded from the area. The zone of low damage was outlined according to Petrov (1958), Gershenzon (1974b), Ionaitis (1984), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984) and others listed below. Its northern border coincides with the northern border of forest-steppe zone (Barysheva et al., 1992). The zone was corrected along the areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops (Tochenov, 1984).

Reference citations:

Aleshev V.A., Gaplevskaya L.N., Kozlova L.N., Prikhod.ko I.V., Ryabtseva N.I., Stepanov P.M. 1964. Pests and diseases of agricultural crops in Tajikistan. Dushanbe: Tadzhikgosizdat. 399 p. (In Russian)
Barysheva Yu.A., Bruk S.I., Dmitriev A.V., Stroev K.V., Sutormin A.I., Shashko D.I., Yagust S.I. 1992. Zones of soil-vegetation types. Geographical Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: Com. Geodesy and cartography of the USSR. 48 p. (In Russian)
Dolzhenko V.I., ed. 2004. Methodical instructions on registration tests of insecticides, acaricides, molluscicides, and rodenticides in agriculture. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 363 p. (In Russian)
Gershenson Z.S., Ulenberg S.A. 1998. The Yponomeutinae (Lepidoptera) of the World exclusive of the Americas. Amsterdam: KNAW. 202 p.
Gershenzon Z.S. 1974a. Family Yponomeutidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V.2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 245-250 p. (In Russian)
Gershenzon Z.S. 1974b. Yponomeutidae, Argyresthiidae. In: Puchkov V.G., ed. Fauna of Ukraine. V. 15(6). Kiev: Naukova Dumka. 132 p. (In Ukrainian)
Gershenzon Z.S. 1986. List of Yponomeutidae (Lepidoptera) of the USSR fauna. In: Gilyarov M.S., ed. Proceedings VEO. Lepidoptera of the USSR. V. 67. Leningrad: AN SSSR. 10-19 p. (In Russian)
Jonaitis V.P. 1984. Dynamics of structural parameters of the Ermine Moth populations and their interrelation in Lithuanian SSR in 1973-1982. In: Zayanchkauskas P.A., ed. Lepidoptera of Lithuanian SSR, their biology and ecology Acta Entomogica Lituanica. V. 7. Vil.nyus: Mokslas. 15-23 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Krasil.nikova G.A. 1967. Lepidoptaran orchard pests in SW Turkmenistan. PhD Thesis. Ashkhabad: ZIN AN SSSR & IZ AN TurkmSSR. 21 p. (In Russian)
Kurbanova D.D. 1967. Ermine Moths as pests of fruits in Quba-Xachmaz area of Azerbaijan. PhD Thesis. Baku: Azerbaijan Pedagogical Institute. 16 p. (In Russian)
Matesova G.Ya., Mityaev I.D. Yukhnevich L.A. 1962. Review of insects damaging fruit and berry cultures and grape-vine in Southwest Kazakhstan. In: Marikovskii P.I., ed. Materials on study of insects of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: AN Kaz.SSR. 3-46 p. (In Russian)
Miralibekov N. 1986. Ecological and faunistic review of insects - pests of fruit crops in the Western Pamirs. In: Chikatunov V.I., ed. Fauna, ecology and zoogeography of Pamirs. Dushanbe: Donish. 50-55 p. (In Russian)
Petrov A.I. 1958. Area of Hyponomeuta malinellus Z. and Hyponomeuta padellus L. and zones of their harmfulness in the USSR. Proc. Inst. Zool. V. 8. Entomology. Alma-Ata: AN KazSSR. 39-74 p. (In Russian)
Porsaev M. 1966. Pests of stone fruits in Samarkand Region. PhD Thesis. Kiev: UkrSKhA. 15 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Sinev S.Yu. 1994. Family Yponomeutidae (Hyponomeutidae). In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 247-254 p. (In Russian)
Slavgorodskaya-Kurpieva L.E. 1969. Hyponomeuta spp. and their control. PhD Thesis. Simferopol.: Krymskii SKHI, VIZR. 19 p. (In Russian)
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 260 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © E.I. Ovsyannikova, I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR; description, raster map); M.I. Saulich (VIZR, vector map,); I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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