Area of distribution and damage of Zeuzera pyrina L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialists I.Ya. Grichanov & E.I. Ovsyannikova,
GIS-specialist M.I. Saulich.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 33 000 000 and 1:17 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons. Zones of recorded mass outbreak are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

Only a zone of low damage was allocated within the limits of the general area in the territory of the former USSR. Here the pest has economic significance. It damages not more than 15% of trees, with a population density of 1 caterpillar per tree (Lobaev, 1969). In neglected and old gardens the damage of fruit trees by the Leopard Moth reaches 15-50%, with population density more than 2-3 caterpillars per tree. Control of the Codling Moth also reduces numbers of this pest.

Method of map production:

Scientists were given maps with boundaries of Oblasts and arable lands. After reviewing historic literature, species distribution was hand drawn on maps. Hand drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced and vectorized. The Leopard Moth area was outlined according to the following reference data on the species distribution: Anfinnikov (1961, 1962), Batiashvili (1965), Krasil.nikova (1967), Rudnev (1974), Savkovskii (1976), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Zagulyaev (1978, 1994), Chistyakov (1988, 1999). It is distributed in the European part from the Caucasus to the northern border of distribution of deciduous forests, in Transcaucasia, Western Siberia, Northern Kazakhstan, in southwest Turkmenistan, in the south of the Far East; in mountain areas it reaches the upper border of forest. High mountains of the Caucasus and desert lands of the Caspian Depression were excluded from the area. Near the northern border of the area and in Siberia the species is known locally. In Leningrad Region its presence is doubtful (Derzhavets et al., 1986). In the Far East it is known from the Amur Region, Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories according to Shtundyuk & Ablakatova (1969) and Chistyakov (1999). Here the northern border of its area coincides with the northern border of the zone of deciduous and mixed forests (Chikov, 1983). The zone of low pest damage was drawn based on the following sources: Anfinnikov (1961, 1962), Batiashvili (1965), Lobaev (1969), Vasil.ev & Livshits (1984), Chistyakov (1988), Savkovskii (1976), Smol.yannikov (1979). According to these sources the zone includes steppe zone of Moldova, Ukraine, Central Chernozen Region, Lower and Middle Volga Region, and Northern Caucasus (Rostov Region, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories), and also areas of cultivation of pear and apple in Transcaucasia, Amur Region, Khabarovsk and Primorskii Territories. It was corrected along areas of industrial cultivation of fruit crops (Tochenov, 1984).

Reference citations:

Anfinnikov M.A. 1961.The Leopard Moth and its control. Kiev: UkrASKHN. 153 p. (In Russian)
Anfinnikov M.A. 1962. About geographical distribution of the Leopard Moth (Zeuzera pyrina L.) and zones of its damage. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 41(12): 1831-1837. (In Russian)
Batiashvili I.D. 1965.Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. Tbilisi: Ganatleba. 336 p. (In Russian)
Chikov P.S., ed. 1983. Atlas of areas and resources of herbs of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 340 p. (In Russian)
Chistyakov Yu.A. 1988. Cossidae. In: Kirpichnikova V.A., Ler P.A., eds. Butterflies - pests of the Far Eastern agriculture. Keys. Vladivostok: DVO AN SSSR. 55-60 p. (In Russian)
Chistyakov Yu.A. 1999. Cossidae. In: Ler P.A., ed. Keys to the insects of the Russian Far East. V. 5(2). Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Vladivostok: Dal.nauka. 309-317 p. (In Russian)
Derzhavets Yu.A., Ivanov A.I., Mironov V.G., Mishchenko O.A., Prasolov V.I., Sinev S.Yu. 1986. List of Macrolepidoptera of Leningrad Region. In: Gilyarov M.S., ed. Fauna of Lepidoptera of the USSR. Proc. VEO. V. 67. Leningrad: Nauka. 186-270 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Krasil.nikova G.A. 1967. Lepidoptaran orchard pests in SW Turkmenistan. PhD Thesis. Ashkhabad: ZIN AN SSSR & IZ AN TurkmSSR. 21 p. (In Russian)
Lobaev I.I. 1969. The Leopard Moth on orchards of Crimea and its control. In: Lebedev A.L., ed. Intensive fruit growing (Proc. Crimean SKHI). V. 8(3). Kerch: Odessa SKHI. 33-38 p. (In Russian)
Polyakov I.Ya., Kopaneva L.M., Dorokhova G.I. 1984. Number and distribution of pests and entomophages of fruit and berry cultures in different agricultural zones of the USSR. In: Kopaneva L.M., ed. Key to harmful and useful insects and mites of fruit and berry cultures in the USSR. Leningrad: Kolos. 6-45 p. (In Russian)
Rudnev D.F. 1974. Cossidae. In: Vasil.ev V.P., ed. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations. V. 2. Arthropods. Kiev: Urozhai. 226-228 p. (In Russian)
Savkovskii P.P. 1976. Atlas of the pests of fruit and berry plants. Kiev: Urozhai. 207 p. (In Russian)
Shtundyuk A.V., Ablakanova A.A. 1969. Pests and diseases of fruit-berry cultures and vines in the Far East and their control. Khabarovsk: Khabarovsk Publishing House. 140 p. (In Russian).
Smol.yannikov V.V. 1979. Pests of wood, cambium and bark. Zashchita rastenii 2: 52-53. (In Russian)
Tochenov V.V., ed. 1984. Atlas of the USSR. Moscow: GUGK. 260 p. (In Russian)
Vasil.ev V.P., Livshits I.Z. 1984. Pests of fruit crops. Moscow: Kolos. 399 p. (In Russian)
Zagulyaev A.K. 1978. Cossidae. In: Medvedev G.S., ed. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. V. 4(1). Leningrad: Nauka. 177-186 p. (In Russian)
Zagulyaev A.K. 1994. Cossidae. In: Kuznetsov V.I., ed. Insects and mites - pests of agricultural plants. V. 3(1). Lepidoptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 47-51 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © I.Ya. Grichanov, E.I. Ovsyannikova (VIZR; description, raster map), M.I. Saulich (VIZR; vector map,); I.Ya. Grichanov (VIZR, photo).

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